British politician, whose full name is Anthony Charles Lybton Blair, born on May 6, 1953 in Edinburgh (Scotland). He/She began his political career in 1983 when he/she was elected member of Parliament for the Labour Party, being re-elected again in 1987 and 1992. In 1994 he/she became the leader of the party, at the age of forty-one, getting, three years later, his first electoral victory in the general election held on May 1, 1997, by which Queen Elizabeth II commissioned him to form a Government. He/She was re-elected in 2001 and 2005.
His childhood spent in the bosom of a family of upper-middle class, in which his father had as a profession law, developed at the industrial level from a conservative position. However, Blair inherited from his father the vocation and dedication to the right. His education was careful and exquisite, making studying in Durham Choristers School and the Fettes College in Edinburgh, which, without any doubt, is the most prestigious private school from all over Scotland. College took them place in the St. John College of Oxford, achieving the degree of Licentiate in law. He/She immediately joined the work, under the tutelage of the famous and prestigious labour lawyer, Derry Irvine.
If during all her student had not shown the slightest inclination by political topics, from the time of its incorporation into the world of work was involved as a member of the Labour Party, which established an absolute match both in relation to their social concerns and his concept of Christian, feature Yes developed stage of youth. In this context, he/she met his future wife, Cherie, which contracted marriage in 1980. Also a lawyer and policy, both established a secret pact in defining their careers. Unable to develop both political careers with hits, only continue it that one of the two who first got a seat, which Tony Blair reached. The event took place in June 1983, when Blair was elected Deputy for the constituency of Sedgefield, district of strong labor tradition, keeping it in the successive elections of June 1987 and April 1992. Cherie Booth developed his professional life linked to the world of the legal profession and became one of the most prestigious and successful lawyers in Britain. From the marriage were born four children: Euan, Nicholas, Kathryn and Leo.
Within the labour ranks, once protagonist, acquired a role especially during the stage of opposition from his party, being a member of the so-called shadow government, first as spokesman for trade and industry and, later, as a spokesperson for employment. From this position, Blair established a line in favour of the individual freedoms of workers, which meant the end of traditional historical support that labour had given to the trade workshops. At the same time he/she defended the end of the power of the Trade Unions, to want to introduce the system of a member a vote against voting block that had prevailed until then. In the next legislature, the party continued in opposition, prompting the resignation of the then leading labour, Neil Kinnock. While Blair was taken into account as a possible successor, he/she rejected any possibility, in favour of John Smith. Blair took responsibility for Interior, which led him to establish ongoing clashes with the Ministry in question whose portfolio was occupied by Michael Howard. Its position was maintained in hard and fierce defense of law and order, being the most problematic issues, the formation of neighborhood patrols, your organization and authorization and the climate of criminality.
John Smith's unexpected death by myocardial infarction, back you in the spotlight of the party, with the desire to elect him as leader. Following the elections to the European Parliament in 1994, the Executive Committee of the Labour Party convened for July 21 the election of a new leader. On this occasion, Blair, the man most feared by the conservative party, took office after obtaining a hefty difference of votes with the rest of the contenders, John Prescott and Margaret Beckett, who had served, as acting leader after John Smith's death. The main support of Blair came facilitated by a member and a vote system, approved in 1933 by the Labour Congress, which guaranteed him a higher number of supporters, especially in three areas: national parliamentarians and MEPs, the members and trade unions.
With this majority victory, the main commitment, from that moment, for Blair declined to put back the labour party in the Government, thus overcoming a stage of continuous frustration, after four consecutive electoral defeats. To get this project it not hesitated to renew the ranks of party officials but, above all, to try to maintain a moderate image that would attract the sympathy of the whole of the dye centrist electorate. In reality the choice of Center, which corresponded with the general atmosphere in the rest of the European Governments, it responded to the reality of their political action, clearly exemplified, when it announced its intention to eliminate the fourth clause of the Statute, which advocated a State that holds the means of production and put in place a process of collectivization of the party program. Of all his initiatives, this was I raise more confrontation between the Labour Party, particularly with the wing more left wing of the party, which saw, in this initiative, the end of the identity of its formation to abandon the Marxist tradition and special social sensitivity, flag of the English labour. Strong debates that occurred in response to this initiative did not prevent that, in 1995, it was approved by the National Executive Committee.
The so-called new labour defined by Tony Blair as a radical centrist, gave very good results in the elections held on 1 May 1997, in which the Labour Party won a landslide victory, gaining 419 seats against the 165 that got the conservative party, led by John Major. The then Prime Minister, along with the formalities laid down in the British parliamentary government, submitted his resignation to Queen Isabel II, who gave Blair the new Government formation. His promise was fulfilled, thus, ending with, no less than eighteen years of conservative governments.
During the legislature, the characteristics of its policy were perpetuators of the line already printed in the opposition. This can be defined in three main areas: constitutional reform, concern for the issues of education and public health approach to Europe. In domestic policy problems to be faced, in order of priority in its portfolio, were, firstly, the peace process in Ulster initiated by his predecessor in the Government, John Major, which succeeded in establishing agreements of Downing Street after arduous, difficult and troubled negotiations. The intentions of Blair to continue with the negotiating table were to put an end to the oldest conflict in Great Britain, reaching a definitive solution to May 1998. At the same time, its policy sought to maintain a cash balance, within the United Kingdom, by granting certain reforms to give greater autonomy to the parliamentary chambers, issue that divided opinions to almost irreconcilable positions. Its social policy followed marked by timidly moderate measures.
With regard to its foreign policy, all of his ideas are contained in his book entitled a new Britain. My vision of a young country which reflected the position which was to occupy his country in 2000. Two main points of action can be mentioned. On one side, the traditional understanding maintained between the United States of America and Great Britain, became a well avenido marriage, by the complicity and parallels existing between the two leaders, Tony Blair and Bill Clinton. This union was confirmed in the new crisis in the Gulf, of February 1998, in which Britain, by Blair decision, supported the policy established by the United States of Bill Clinton, determined to proceed with an attack on Iraq and only averted at the last moment, by the Secretary-General of the UN, Kofi Annan. The other line is confined within the European Union, with which Blair wants to provoke a firmer approach.
His popularity ratings reached an unsurpassed maximum, after the death in traffic accident of Princess Lady Di, ex-wife of the Crown Prince of the British Crown, Carlos, and mother of the future King. The figure of Diana had permeated the sentiment around the country and the immediate reaction, after the news, recognizing his grief and the importance of the figure of Diana, provided a connection with the village, opposite the slow and cold react in the British Royal family. Tony Blair did not have an easy task of Government. To his favor has great personal charisma and broad confidence inspired by voters. Against this, the difficulty of resolving quickly as issues and problems which, because of its long duration temporary, exhausted the patience of many British.
One of these thorny issues, the pacification of Ulster, has been one are the triumphs to enter on the curriculum of this young politician. Blair began a process of approximation with the Sinn Féin (political wing of the IRA) in December 1997, when it allowed its leader Gerry Adams from entering the official residence in Downing Street to discuss a possible peace in Ireland North and lay the groundwork for a future agreement. This was made possible finally on 10 April 1998, when representatives of the parties to the conflict: Gerry Adams, leader of the no Fein; Bertie Ahern, Prime Minister of Ireland; John Hume, leader of the Social Democratic Party and a labour of Ireland of the North (SDLP); Gary McMichael, leader of the Democratic Party of Ulster (UDP); at Stormont Castle, the Unionist leader, David Trimble, and British Prime Minister Tony Blair signed a historic peace agreement that put an end to a war that pitted Catholics/freedom fighters and Protestants/unionists for thirty years, and cost the lives of more than 3,000 people.
The food crisis that erupted in 2000, by the cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("bad mad") and foot and mouth disease in pigs, put one of the black spots to its legislature which, however, was endorsed by a brilliant economic management.Summoned to the polls on June 8, 2001, the British returned to offer his support to Tony Blair and the labour leader got a landslide victory over his rival, the conservative candidate William Hague, who presented his resignation in front of the party shortly after his defeat. Prime Minister reissued its mandate with the support of an absolute majority of the votes (413 seats facing tory party 166), gesta who had never before managed a labour candidate, although election day registered the highest rate of abstention since 1918. Only 59.2 percent of voters turned out to vote.
The clear victory of Blair, who focused his campaign on the promise of improving the ineffective British public services and working for a policy approach to the European monetary system, also served to bury the last vestiges of the Thatcher era and sow a deep crisis at the heart of the conservative party. However, two years after his triumph at the polls, the popularity of the Prime Minister began to lose whole. Its support for US military intervention in Iraq cost him the support of a large number of citizens and even some of the most popular members of his Government, which chose to leave the Cabinet. This circumstance also favored the victory of the conservatives in local elections in 2004 but, despite everything, Blair kept unchanged its defense of the Anglo-American Pact.
The broad popular discontent by the involvement of the United Kingdom in the war of Iraq remained in suspense the outcome of legislative elections in 2005 but Tony Blair became the first British Labour leader in a third consecutive win. The expected vote of punishment against the Government reduced the labour representation in the House of Commons to 355 seats (compared to the 166 conservative Michael Howard and Charles Kennedy Liberals 62); most limited but enough to keep the Blair family in 10 Downing Street.
Much more severe was the punishment of the voters in the municipal of may of 2006 where labour collected a resounding defeat. Blair picked up the glove and launched a powerful realignment of his cabinet which affected major portfolios like defense, Interior or exterior. Margaret Beckett became the first woman at the head of the Foreign Office.
A year later, on 10 May 2007, Tony Blair announced its withdrawal from power after 13 years of labour leader and British Prime Minister 10; politically worn out by the war in Iraq and increasingly unpopular in national politics.