Italian librettist and composer. After studying at the Conservatory of Milan, he traveled to Paris with his friend F. Faccio. In the French capital he met Auber, Berlioz, Gounod, Rossini and Verdi, who wrote the text of the Inno delle Nazioni (1862) and who later continued a long collaboration. Returning to Milan he devoted himself to journalism, theater, and poetry, being recognized as one of the most important members of the new literary movement scapigliatura. Author of texts for different composers, earned his greatest success as a librettist with Otello and Falstaff, Verdi. He wrote the Opera Mefistofele, represented in 1868 at la Scala in Milan, where failed and that remakes in 1875 after for Bologna; and Nerone, which left unfinished and was released after his death in 1924.