Biography of Andrés Bonifacio (1863-1897)

Filipino revolutionary leader, born in Manila on November 30, 1863 and died in the same city on May 10, 1897, who led Katipunan - the secret society that was behind the independence uprising of 1896 - and is considered the main hero and martyr of the movement that helped end three centuries of Spanish colonial rule.

Son of an officer of the colonial administration, Andrés Bonifacio had to work from a young age to stay orphaned and have carried out his five younger siblings. It exerted varied trades as seller Street, painter of posters or Messenger, and even founded a theatrical company (Teatro El Porvenir) performing their functions in the Tagalog language. In 1892 he/she joined the newly founded League Philippine of José Rizal (1861-1896), expressing a character strong and determined that made you soon distinguish between members of the Organization since the beginning.

An advocate of the insurrection against the peaceful tactics of Rizal, Bonifacio joined other dissidents who shared their ideas -Ladislao Diwa, Teodoro Plata or Deodato Arellano - for the creation of a new independence organization, the Katipunan, on the same day that Rizal was banished to Mindanao (July 7, 1892). Unlike the League, the Katipunan contemplated the possibility of armed rebellion and was organized according to the patterns of the secret societies. In the beginning, Bonifacio formed a ruling triumvirate along with Ladislao Diwa, Teodoro Plata, but from 1894 emerged the undisputed leader to hold the eloquent name of Supreme. During the following months were devoted to increasing the number of members of the society and prepare them for the time of the expected uprising, task for which featured among others the work of Emilio Jacinto (1875-1899) and Dr. Pío Valenzuela (1869-1956).

On August 23, 1896 Boniface brought together chiefs katipuneros in Balintawak, event that is considered the official start of the independence revolution - the cry of Balintawak -. However, this did not occur in general until the 28th, when the own Bonifacio read a manifesto that called for weapons to all the local cells of the Katipunan in the island of Luzon; the spread of the revolution to the rest of the Islands would be gradual, or in some cases non-existent.

Faced with Emilio Aguinaldo by the leadership of the independence movement after the death of Rizal, Bonifacio was erected in main ringleader of the faction Magdiwang, party continue the fight under the guidelines laid from the direction of the Katipunan Supreme and opposed to establishing a Government, just as intended by the faction of Aguinaldo, more numerous and influential. The pulse between the two currents met in the Tejeros Convention, in March 1897, with the defeat of Bonifacio; However, this was not willing to abide by the established at that meeting and decided to proceed on its own struggle for independence along with his followers, a purpose which did not hesitate to be frustrated. In April of that same year, he/she was surrounded by forces loyal to Aguinaldo in the village where he/she had established his headquarters general, imprisoned and brought before a Council of war, accused of high treason committed against the legitimate Government of the Philippines. Sentenced to death after a trial of dubious legality, it seems that in the last moment tried to commute the death penalty by the exile, but the truth is that it was driven with his brother Procopio to a nearby hill where both were killed.

In 1921, the Philippine Government recognized the merits of Bonifacio on behalf of the struggle for independence and dedicated to his memory one day a year, on 30 November.