Argentine writer born in Buenos Aires on August 24, 1899 and died in Geneva (Switzerland) on June 14, 1986. Educated in Switzerland, he was one of the forerunners of the ultraísmo. He founded the magazines Proa and Prism. He also created the grupo Martín Fierro, spokesman of the literary avant-garde of the 1920s and 30 in Argentina.
Considered one of the most important writers of Spanish language, Borges wrote the story, poetry, essay, literary criticism and the novel. He wrote in English and was a scholar who did not hesitate to publish reflections, dictionaries and manuals on the most fantastic disciplines, without losing the constant corrosive humor that characterized him in any of them.The publication in 1942 of the garden of paths that bifurcate (later incorporated into Ficciones, 1944), is a milestone in the process leading to the new novel: "If something I am rich - said Borges in the prologue to his discussions with Burgin-, is of perplexities, not certainties". His father was an atheist; his mother, a practicing Catholic. He maintained an attitude of total agnosticism. But a careful reading of his work see numerous cases in which it rejected with gentle irony the conventional concept of God; not a few critical references to Catholicism are also recorded. In fact, Borges had stated categorically that any reference to God or the divine in their works should be interpreted as a pure formal resource.
Before returning to the Argentina, he participated in the ultraist adventure Spain. Back to Buenos Aires, he encouraged several cultural initiatives such as the magazines Proa and Prisma and Martín Fierro, spokesman for the vanguard group.
From 1925 to 1935, published three books of poetry, characterized by wide verse, versicular, inspired by Whitman and the Bible, and the theme of the city of Buenos Aires: Fervor de Buenos Aires (1923), Moon opposite (1926) and Cuaderno San Martín (1929).
From 1935 to 1964 he published books of imaginative stories that speculate with historical data philosophical doctrines and literary conjecture. An admirer of Lugones, Chesterton, Joseph Conrad and Marcel Schwob, Schopenhauer, among others, Borges emerges as the most representative of fantasy literature author: universal history of infamy (1935) - strongly influenced by reading M. Schwob- Ficciones (1944) and the aleph (1949).
In its most original stories, Borges explores concepts such as the conjectural or symbolic. These stories are - in some way - parables or fables which illustrate the possibility that everything is a set of symbols or facts repeated in the course of time to conclude in another fact, incidental or as paradoxical as that originated it. The collapse of the old traditional certainties do see Borges contemplating reality as if it were a strange and sometimes scary puzzles, which, however, could perhaps contain evidence of possible explanations, even if they were of a type that our mind is conditioned to resist.
What keeps the balance of many of his stories is the humor. But it is not humor born of spiritual suffering, but an expression of serene and almost playful consciousness having Borges of the absurd as an integral part of the human condition.
Since 1964 - accented his blindness from 1955 - published, interchangeably, verse and prose. His poetry is confined to autobiographical poetic comments, based on readings or readings of authors real and imaginary memories. As for his prose, arguably that Borges refines its language and uses it to reduce reality to mythical and fantastic, metaphysical, dimensions with frequent forays into the erudition and humour.
Borges makes a mockery of the culture and, at the same time, create the. This paradoxical climate is another of his outstanding attributes.
His poetry books are: the other, (1964), in praise of shadow (1969), the gold of Tigers (1972), the deep pink (1975), the currency of iron (1976).
Belong to this last stage his books of stories report of Brodie (1970) and the book of sand (1975). From the maker (1960), Borges tended to publish books that were "silva de varia lesson" and interspersed, in verse and prose. Thus he wrote texts that erase the boundaries of literary genres and unify the poetry, story and essay. For example, the figure (1981) and Los conjurados (1985).
With his friend Adolfo Bioy Casares, Borges wrote the best police accounts of the language. Under the pseudonym of H. Bustos Domecq, creating: six problems for don Isidro Parodi (1942), two memorable fantasies (1946), and Chronicles of Bustos Domecq (1947) and B. Suárez Lynch: A model for death (1946), among others.
Acclaimed by critics worldwide, censored by their irresponsible comments of a political nature, corroded by their hatred to Peron and the PJ, Borges was to die to Geneva, where he is buried, away from his country who loved without understanding it.
It is no less important to his work of essayist. His point of view always original, slight and graceful, its colloquial and elegant prose style, contributed to his reputation as a scholar, skeptic and dissident of the commonplace. Borges is a provocateur who spur our curiosity and our intelligence and leads us to imagine, think poetically, about human destiny and the future of the culture. His major books of essays: lnquisiciones (1925), history of eternity (1953), other inquisitions (1960), discussion (1964), oral Borges (1980) and seven nights (1980).
Also let three strange erudition books: ancient Germanic literature (1951), Handbook of fantastic Zoology (1957) and the book of imaginary beings (1967).
Considered one of the greatest writers of Spanish language, Borges was decisively influenced not only in Latin America but also in Europe, Asia and North America.