Danish astronomer born 14 December 1546 and died October 24, 1601. He is considered as the most important astronomical observer of the pretelescopic era and innovator in astronomy studies. Born of noble family, fearless character, was raised by an uncle his who had reserved a political career. He decided to devote himself to astronomy at the age of 14, the day that observed the partial solar eclipse of 1560.
In 1572 observed a nova (exploding star) in Cassiopeia, which had already been observed in the year 134 BC, and that he found it was a fixed star outside the solar system, today known as the star of Tycho. Noted her year and a half, and published the results in the Treaty of nova stella (1573), causing a revolution, cosmologically speaking, since until then, since the time of Aristotle, it had accepted the eternal and unchangeable nature of the stars.
Enjoyed the favour of the King of Denmark, Federico II, who ceded the small island of Hven, in the Sund Strait, in 1577, now Swedish territory, along with a Monetary Fund that was used for the construction of the Observatory of Uraniborg (Sky City). It was the largest of his time Observatory and furnished with the best and biggest instruments they could get, such as mural quadrants, sextants, armillary spheres, brackets and gnomones with gigantic graduated scales, some of which were designed by him; all this in order to obtain the greater possible precision in the determination of the celestial coordinates and other astronomical measures.
The following 20 years he devoted them to estimates of the positions of 777 stars, which provided important information for future astronomical studies and in particular of Kepler astronomy. In 1588, Tycho denied, based on their observations and measurements, the theory of the nature of comets, hitherto universally accepted. It followed with their instruments to the comet appeared on November 13, 1577, measured its parallax and distance, concluding that it was beyond the moon to approximately 230 land radios. Collected observations in which can be considered the first scientific treatise on comets, Mundi aetherei Numis phaenomenis (of the more recent phenomena of the Ethereal world).
Tycho rejected the Copernican system that earth revolves in an orbit around the Sun, not measure annual (parallax) shift in the positions of the fixed stars, which an observer should see if were true thought of Copernicus. Tycho was wrong in its reasoning, given the insufficient precision of their instruments which not allowed him to see the small Parallax of the star.
Either you convince him the old conception of Aristotle and Ptolemy, the still grounding in the center of the universe, which led him to formulate his own theory that the Earth was at the center of the universe, but the planets revolved around the Sun and not the Earth.
After the death of King Federico II, his successor forced him to leave the island of Hven and, after three years of making numerous trips, got the protection of Rodolfo II, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, who granted him a castle on the outskirts of Prague, which became Observatory and which definitively settled until his deathtwo years later. Here joins him, in 1600, the young J. Kepler, with whom he maintained a fruitful collaboration and left that responsibility for the publication of your catalog tables rodolfinas (1627). Kepler served Tycho works to formulate his famous laws of planetary movements which, on the other hand, served as confirmation of the theory of Copernicus on the solar system.
He has that, in 1565, because of a difference of opinion with another student by a mathematical problem, he broke in duel and was mutilated nose, at the age of 19, and must carry the rest of his life a false of gold, silver, and wax, which can be seen in the portraits of the time.