Biography of Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)

German composer; He was born in Hamburg on May 7, 1833, and died in Vienna on April 3, 1897. His work represents the sum of the spirit of romanticism with the formalism of earlier stages. First, it will take Brahms sentiment and methods of composition, although adding to them the classic form and the influence of composers of the Baroque as Bach or Handel.

Johannes Brahms.

Life.

Second son of a humble family, received his first musical training from his own father, bassist in the municipal Orchestra, before, at the age of seven, Otto W. F. Cossel, which studied piano lessons. Their progress and their first success at age ten (after which a headhunter proposed to take him to America for a concert tour, possibility that Cossel decided to prevent), as well as the wishes of the young to study composition, make that his teacher recommends it to Eduard Marxen which, in turn, had been master of Cossel. At the time, the young man carried out frequent arrangements of music known to the Orchestra that played his father, thereby helping the ailing economy and achieving in this way a musical practice that will be of great help in his subsequent career as a composer.

In 1848, he gave his first concert solo and worked on the composition of a constant and fruitful way. The following year, at the suggestion of Marxen, Schumann sent several of his works for advice. Paradoxically, given the friendship that later would join both, the shipment was returned to Brahms unopened. Data from these same years, the distribution of Hungary between Austria and Russia, the first contact of Brahms Hungarian music through the many emigrants passing through Hamburg. The influence of irregular rhythms and their triplets will be evident in the work of the composer, not only in what comes to their well known Hungarian dances, but the use of these triplets and irregular rhythms (or, at least, compounds) in songs such as the Op. 3 No. 4, entitled Lied, which begins "Weit über das Feld durch die Lufte".

In 1853 he accompanied on a tour of the Hungarian violinist Eduard Reményi that took him to Göttingen, where she met the violinist Joseph Joachim, which joined a friendship that lasted for years, even more than the differences between the two emerged. So, know that the master of Hamburg not stopped sending the violinist as composed for his instrument, and even for Orchestra, in order to receive your opinion, after beginning on the part of the wife of Joachim in the lawsuit that followed the divorce of this and that, likewise, was Joachim who led the premiere of the Fourth Symphony Brahms.

In this first meeting, it suggested Joachim Brahms Schumann in Düsseldorf to visit. The first meeting between the two had the opposite effect of the shipping of works already mentioned, as Schumann, artistic model of the young Brahms, got a pleasing impression both the compositions and the musicality of the young, to which he devoted an article in the press.

It also served this first trip to take contact with Liszt in Weimar, but soon he found Brahms the difference between the language of Hungarian music and his, a difference which, later, was to perpetuate itself through the work of Wagner, opposite during the Brahms on a good part of the public and the critics. Such a difference, applauded and supported by other musicians such as Joachim, was expressed in the manifesto published in 1860, in the formally broke with the circle of Liszt music budgets.

However, returning back to the Schumann, the friendship that they contracted Brahms led him to return to Düsseldorf to understand the disease that had to be carried to the Tomb to the still young, but badly alienated Schumann. After his death in 1856, Brahms remained next to Clara, which fell in love and to which he dedicated his work of this time. The relationship between Brahms and Clara Schumann has given rise to a number of assumptions, the most romantic thing that make the young composer a transcript of Goethe's Werther, to the most daring, which speak of a love affair between the two guilty of the latest crisis of Schumann. But the variety of options, the first seems the closest to the facts that we know. In 1857, Clara returned to his mother's House in Berlin and Brahms to Hamburg, where he continued the composition and orchestral direction. Later loves brahmsianos, never culminated in a wedding, not deleted from your spirit this passion for Clara, who kept the rest of his life.

1859 marked the beginning of his dedication to choral music (directed a female choir in Hamburg that arranged folk melodies, today lost most, showing a compositional line that must culminate in works such as songs and Romanzas op 44 or six books of popular German songs, published without opus number in 1894. It was also the year of the premiere of his first concert for piano, in the key of d minor, published as Op. 15 and that he had been working for four years. It was a season of feverish work. He tried to do with the direction of the Philharmonic Orchestra of Hamburg, reason for which tried to publish everything. Thus, saw the light of his two SERENADES for strings, variations on a theme by Handel or variations on a theme by Schumann. At the time, he worked in works that gave completed later, as the German Requiem. Eager to collect fame that become the candidate for the direction of the aforementioned Orchestra, traveled to Vienna, where, despite the initial intention, was to live the rest of his days.

Soon broke through in the musical world of Vienna and was known to the public through his two string quartets with piano in g minor and the largest. In this same year he met Wagner , apparently driven by fear to rival that Brahms could be you if you devote himself to opera, it attacked him in an article in a way so ferocious that it created a feud between both musicians joined the purely musical differences in the establishment of two musical currents in Germany in the second half of the 19th.

In 1863, he was elected director of the Wien Singakademie and forgot their projects for Hamburg. This forced him to delve into the choral style through the study of the work of Schutz, Gabrieli, Bach and, later, Mendelssohn and Beethoven. In this way, from the romantic fascination with ancient, he give to his style that point between formalism and romanticism to which we have referred us lines back. In this 1863, Vienna gave a concert with his works that became it even better known. In 1867, his mother's death led him to conclude that, after several unfinished projects dating back to 1857, culminated in his German Requiem Op. 45, one of his masterpieces that fused his interest in the human voice and his wisdom in the management of the Orchestra with the artistic results of his study of German choral music of the Baroque. The work, which premiered in its final version Friday of 1871, achieved success which catapulted to fame which up to then had opened is way only between the Viennese public.

To 1867, he was already a composer known throughout Europe. However, tried by all means to achieve a stable post of director, which succeeded in 1872 with the society of concerts of Vienna. His work in front of the Orchestra and choir Viennese led him to rediscover scores by Bach and Handel, as well as other German Baroque composers, so, slowly grew accustomed to the public hearing of such music. However, as his fame and his work as a composer grew (its catalogue going to these heights by Opus 60 and includes such well-known works as the mentioned Requiem or variations on a theme by Haydn Op. 56) and that, on the other hand, began to appear professional conductor, its limitations as the director became increasingly evident, so in 1875, decided to resign as director of the Sociedad de Conciertos. Their economic position was stable enough (between concerts and copyright) to dedicate completely to the composition. The following year, he was appointed Doctor honoris cause from Cambridge, but he refused the honour. It accepted it, on the other hand, his friend Joachim, who directed such during the premiere of the first Symphony in c minor op. 68.

The following years marked a decidedly quiet life: from official posts (is significant resigned in 1876 to the Superior music school of Düsseldorff), focused on the composition and traveled, whenever he could, along with his friends. Little by little, he began alternating composition and interpretation, almost always of his own work. He came to establish a shift of concerts during the winter and composition during the summers, however, he also composed during the winters. In 1879, he was named Doctor honoris causa by the University of Breslau. Yes this time it accepted and sent as a thank you your for an Op. academic Festival Overture 80, fantasy for Orchestra on student songs that culminates with the famous Gaudeamus igitur. It seems that the casual tone of the composition was not completely of the taste of the cloister of the University which, however, accepted the dedication. In 1881 he met Hans von Bülow, who led with success, and taste of the composer, several of his works. 1882 was marked by the reunion with Clara Schumann, by then Professor of piano at the Conservatory in Frankfurt, during acts of homage to Schumann at the opening of his statue in Bonn. Within a quiet life, in which the events were inextricably linked to music, it must be emphasized, in 1883, the touchdown of the composer with the contralto Hermine Spies, one of so many miss amores as composer, who never married or had become stable. In the compositional aspect, this relationship resulted in a wide vocal production for contralto including two songs for Alto, viola and piano Op. 91 or its five songs for voice and piano Op. 94, including the well-known Saphische Ode (Sapphic ODE).

Friendship with von Bülow Brahms opened the doors of the Orchestra of Meiningen, Bülow directing, as excellent element to rehearse new compositions. This relationship with the Orchestra, narrowed again thanks to von Bülow, through a deep friendship with the Dukes of Meiningen, led the composer to embark on a new orchestral work: his fourth Symphony in Mi minor op, one of his most personal works.

By then, Brahms was already a whole figure in Europe. He received decorations from the Kaiser Guillermo (order of peace with the Apostille Pour le Mérite), the Emperor of Austria (Commander of the order of Leopold) or his hometown, that he appointed him honorary citizen in 1889, occasion for which Brahms composed his Fest - und Gedenkspruche Op. 109, part addressed on the occasion of the delivery of the distinction.

In 1890, decided to leave the composition after concluding a series of works that he kept unfinished or that he had forgotten: the quintet Op. 111, the thirteen cannons. 113 (some from their times of Hamburg), fifty-one studies for piano and six books of popular German songs. However, it was enough that, in 1891, he met clarinetist Richard Mühlfeld so write the Trio in a minor for violin, clarinet and cello and the Quintet with clarinet flat minor, which premiered in Berlin the following year. Two years later, Brahms concluded his instrumental work with two Sonatas for clarinet and piano in f minor and e flat major op. 120.

In 1896, he received the news of the death of Clara Schumann, and shortly thereafter, was declared the liver cancer that was to die in March of the following year. They are his latest work, the only one in this period, its four serious songs for voice, Op. 121, on biblical texts that meditates on the meaning of life. Written with the awareness of his illness, the songs are sample of a serious mood but not tormented, the same mood between classic and romantic, which, as noted above, marks all his production.

Her personality was always characterized by withdrawal. Even his most intimate friends, Clara Schumann as well, declaring only to know it to some extent. Such withdrawal, necessary companion of a life dedicated to the composition, especially manifested itself in their relationship with their loved ones, that had just run or that cut to maintain a friendship that sometimes lasted until the composer's death. The same insecurity that permeates this attitude shows in the mix of selfishness and selflessness that speak the testimony of his contemporaries.

Work

The work of Brahms is characterized, has already pointed out, by an attachment to the German compositional tradition which opposes the experimentalism of Liszt and Wagner. In this attachment Brahms fuses the work of his predecessors (Bach, Handel, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert and Schumann mainly) with his interest in the popular music, typical of the romantic ideology. This prolongs what had been considered, after Beethoven, the end of a way of composing. In this way, the work of Brahms is, in order to break that with the music system has to produce at the beginning of the 20th, the exploitation and the renewal of a tradition, both formal as procedures, which the school of Liszt and Wagner had abandoned.

However, the beginning of the work of Brahms is immersed in the Romantic movement, but soon turns towards the study of early music, especially that of Bach, and then her guide to his work. Thus, from the romantic inspiration that is the best example of the brilliant Liszt, Brahms opposes the profession of musician that has had dedicated his predecessors, seeking a tighter composition in the formal aspect, but without falling into the academic. This awareness, which is increasing, leads him to rewrite works as the Trio in if greater. 8 (composed in 1854 and reworked in 1891) simplifying and concentrating the material. On the other hand, it is deeply romantic interest in traditional song as well as the treatment to which subject both in his instrumental work, so the slow movement of his Sonata for Piano Op. 1 which consists of a series of variations on a Hungarian folk tune "Verstohlen geht der Mond auf"), as in the vowel, especially his six books of popular German songs, which reworked its taste, as one member of tradition, without worrying at all about the scientism which later have been folk literature and music. It is intriguing to ponder that is the figure of Brahms, which serve as a musical model first nationalist composers of what then were the Eastern confines of the Austrian Empire, thus Smetanak or Dvorak.

Thus, the work of Brahms as look, has been extremely romantic, to a musical past that is known to be lost in the hands of other composers.

Instrumental works

The instrumental work of Brahms has been regarded as less important than his vocal works, but that this does not pose any demerit for his extensive symphonic production and camera.

Orchestral music

Symphonic music: it took Brahms in dare with the Symphonic form. As it previously happened to Schubert, he felt the weight of the work of Beethoven in excess and was not until close to the forty years that began work on his first Symphony in c minor op. 68, von Bülow would give it the nickname of "the tenth" referring it to the work of Beethoven, both for its quality, as by Beethoven sonship that director warned them. However, the loving appreciation of the known German director has influenced later disastrous judgment on the Symphonic brahmsiano, inasmuch as it has tended to see it as a mere extension of the work of Beethoven, with whose symphonies have come to identify the composer from Hamburg's. In this way, are completely random nicknames of "Pastoral" and "Heroic" with which referred, respectively, to the second Symphony Op. and the Third Symphony Op. Brahms.

However, began his studies of Orchestra Brahms with the two SERENADES in d major op. 11 and the Mayor Op. 16 is good example in this regard successive the first orchestral distribution: for nonet originally for strings then and, finally, for Orchestra. Later on this interest by the Orchestra, and contemporary already in the first Symphony, are variations on a theme by Haydn Op.56 at, which used as its theme a Chorale of San Antonio, which was attributed to Haydn. Thus, concludes in 1876 the first Symphony, a work begun in 1855 and that broke off in 1874 to compose variations mentioned. However, as we will see in other facets of their production, Brahms was able to compensate with intensive work the time taken to assimilate a technique. Thus, it is composed the second in four months, during the summer of 1877, to release it in December of the same year. This follows the third five and a half years later, but also composed in four months. The fourth, finally, will be work of two summers, the 1884 and 1885.

Correspond to the taste of Brahms by the Hungarian music its Hungarian dances Op., composed between 1857 and 1869, which are among the most popular of his orchestral work.

Concerts: In this facet of the production brahmsian is necessary to cite, in the first place, his two concertos for piano Op. 15 and Op. 83 are equipped both with an accompaniment that brings them to the Symphonic genre (the second in Si flat major, has even four movements). The first, prior to the first Symphony, is one step further within the orchestral study of the composer from Hamburg, as it was initially conceived as a sonata for two pianos, though, more forward and the eagerness of perfectionism that it characterized it, concluded Brahms by composing a concert that did not satisfy him and leading him to not play this genre in years. Its second movement, an Adagio composed in 1856, is a musical portrait of Clara Schumann.

In 1881, Brahms composed his second concert, one of the longest ever written, which debuted acting the composer as soloist and, as we have already indicated, has four movements and an orchestral treatment close to a Symphony, which in any case can be described, as sometimes has been done, "Symphony with piano".

Concerto for Violin Op., composed in 1878, has a spirit similar to the of the second Symphony and was composed between the two piano concertos, to some extent as a rest after the little satisfactory result of the first. In fact, the second piano concert has material that Brahms was discarded of the violin concerto. In a year is the Double Concerto for violin and cello Op. 102, in which Brahms explores the possibilities that granted the form of the Concerto Grosso of the Baroque music of the 19th. It seems that pretended to the author, in addition, search through this double concert a reconciliation with Joachim after their estrangement on the occasion of the divorce of the violinist.

Chamber Music: all the first compositional period of Brahms Chamber music features piano in your template. As is the case with the Symphony, it seems that terror to an unfinished work took him to work slowly in those instruments that didn't know the technique, such as the Quartet and the string trio. This slowness is offset by the speed with which the composer came done with tricks of an instrument that interested him, as it happened with the clarinet in his later years. However, in its early years, as we have pointed out, Brahms refuses to leave the piano, despite the advice of Schumann that published several trios for rope that had composed. Finally, it was in 1850 when it was decided to compose and publish your first string sextet in b flat major Op. 18, followed by over a second in Sun higher. 36. both trios will be a success, although not the same happen with his first Quintet for strings Op. 34, whose failure kept the composer of this formation for more than twenty years (his next String Quintet has the number of opus 88). Again we have the mixture, as Brahms, of insecurity and perfectionism that mark the composition of his work and will be responsible for the long gestation of the German Requiem and the loss of his unfinished Fifth Symphony, the composer destroyed by deciding to leave the composition in 1890. The same thing would happen with the string quartets: Since 1865, we have news of their composition (the own Brahms said to have tried more than twenty times) and even of sending some movement to Clara Schumann, but in spite of the mood of this and Joachim, was not settled until 1873 to give terminated the in c minor and the minor, and only dared to compose one more, the Op. 67, in 1876.

His early composition they deserve to stand out pieces such as the quartets with Piano Op.25, Op. 26 and Op. 60, the latter publication later was precompose and Brahms considered it necessary to review it. The Quintet with piano in f minor op. 34 featured two versions, a first for strings and piano with the disapproval of Joachim, and the second for two pianos that didn't like the public, so that Brahms returned it to its original form, as Clara Schumann indicates. Also noteworthy are his Trios with Horn. 40.

His sonatas for violin, cello, clarinet and piano begins publication in 1862 with the Sonata for cello and piano Op. 38 and culminate with the sonatas for clarinet in his later years. Among them is the most prominent Sonata for violin and piano Op. 76, known as Regenlied (rain song) by having a few variations on the song of the same title in its slow movement Op.59 No.3.

Music for solo piano: although it is not as wide as that of Chopin or Beethoven, or so important throughout the production as that of Schubert or Schumann brahmsian, there's no denying the undoubted interest of Brahms piano music. However, did not develop Brahms its possibilities as a composer for the piano in the works devoted to this single instrument does, paradoxically, in others in which the piano is concertante instrument, from his sonatas and Lieder to the piano concertos or trios and string piano quintets.

After starting in the wake of Schumann with works such as the Sonata op. 1 or variations on a theme of Schumann Op. 9, the young Brahms will conform increasingly also in piano music, to its formal plan. The two variations for piano Op. they correspond to this new conception 21, variations on a theme by Paganini Op. 35 or the variations on an aria from Handel Op.24. The variation will be one of the favorite forms of Brahms.

The same spirit is hinted at in his waltzes Op. 39, true homage to Schubert dance music and frequent books of short pieces published during the second half of his career, after a lapse of seven years following the publication, in 1865, of the aforementioned waltzes. They are these notebooks, without being strictly trifles, studies or Caprices, involving the character of both genders and parts that make, in the same way that the work of Liszt but by side completely opposite, the end of the piano sonata as a genre. There are many simple songs without words. Some of these papers are the Intermezzi Op. 76, the Caprices Op. 116 or the Rhapsodies Op. 119.

Vocal works

Symphonic-choral music: In addition to several trials youth not always achieved, stand out in this field four works: the Rhapsody for contralto, male choir and Orchestra Op. 53 on text of Goethe, the song of destiny (Schicksallied), on text of Hölderlin Op.54, Nanie Op. 82 on text of Schiller and, above all, the Requiem Op. German 45, not only the most important of his symphonic works, but work in producing brahmsian. It is the first attempt to combine soloists, choir and Orchestra. The work comprises seven branches and his text, from the office of the dead of the Church, comes from various biblical passages chosen by the author, who was throughout his life of constant reader of the Bible. Sense of Requiem nor corresponds to the of the request for forgiveness of the traditional craft much in a meditation on death and the comfort that you can search in the memory of the people. In this way, as it also happens with some of the masses by Schubert, we find a personal way, "romantic" say, to sacred texts, which are selected to tell them what one intends to approach. Noted with respect to the Requiem brahmsiano the absence of the name of Christ in all the score. It is as if the composer had decided to extend the comfort further than the boundaries of Christianity. Formally, the Requiem is divided into seven sections, of which three, the third, the fifth and the sixth, have two soloists: soprano in the fifth movement and baritone in the third and the sixth, accompanied by the choir, the true protagonist of the work. The importance of the study carried out by the author of the German choral tradition of previous centuries is evident in the treatment of the choir and details such as the choice of the rhythm of the Sarabande for the second movement, which begins with the words of the epistle of San Pedro "for all flesh is like hay".

The song of destiny, for chorus and Orchestra, presents similarities with the Requiem in its dynamic, however, his character brings it closer to Rhapsody for contralto, male chorus and Orchestra that immediately follows it in the catalogue of the works of Brahms. More personal composer of Hamburg is one of the works. Composed as a wedding gift for Julie Schumann, daughter of Robert and Clara Schumann, shows, however, the pain of which, as the author, feels condemned to a solitary life. It seems, however, that the composer had deposited certain hopes in the young after convinced of the impossibility of being reciprocated by Clara and Rhapsody, little indicated by its deep sadness for wedding gift, was that rendered love pain sample, probably without having come to start. Also Brahms used text of Goethe (of the fourth Act of Iphigénie en Tauride) in its Gesang der Parzen Op. 89 Nanie is also structured in three sections, rather than its structure is circular, with the repetition of the introduction in the last bars.

Less important are their Triumphlied Op. 55 (triumph song) dedicated to the Kaiser on the occasion of the victory of Sedan, his Ave María. 13 or the cantata Rinaldo Op 50, again with text of Goethe (this time from the Torcuato Tasso) and with instrumentation such as that used in the Rhapsody, although here the soloist is a tenor.

Choral music: Brahms composed many works for choir alone or accompanied by piano or organ. Writing motets "a capella" had become a common task for the composers of the German romanticism as a way to take the style of the authors of the 16th and 17TH centuries. Consider, for example, the veneration that the first generation of German romantic feel by Palestrina. In this way, Brahms adds this fashion, which had spread also to the public, to his interest for the handling of the different techniques. This concern to respond, for example, its twenty cannons (30, 52, 55, Opus etc). He also composed thirteen motets "a capella" and forty-six songs, including several arranged for their popular German songs for voice and piano. His motets are characterized by complex contrapuntal treatment that prevents style homophonic and apparent common endings in perfect Cadence in imitation of the Baroque counterpoint. Thus, he manages to give an undoubtedly personal touch to a genre that was the great difficulty based on the most servile imitation of past models and not always well understood.

Songs: Songs of Brahms production is extensive and covers his entire career. It has noted that a number of them were motivated by different loves of the composer, without this nothing to subtract them or add to their intrinsic value.

Brahms began his work liederistica in the shadow of Schumann, which are patents the echoes in their six songs for Soprano or Tenor and Piano Op. 3, especially in the triplets of the fourth number, titled Lied (song) and covers, as already mentioned, all the production steps Brahms to the four songs serious Op 121 that would close down their production and, almost, his own life. Among them, will include Brahms all facets of the song, from the Strophic song (thus Der Frühling Op.6 No.2 or the well-known Nana Op.49 No. 4) up to the developed composition (such as Von ewiger Liebe - of eternal love - Op. 43 No. 1), passing through the ballad (especially the cycle of ballads Die Schöne Magelone - the beautiful Magelone - Op. 33) and the folk song (for one or more voices and not just in the notebooks of popular German songs already mentioned, but as compositions in loose mode Vergebliches Ständchen - Serenade in vain - Op. 84 No. 4 in which galan and Lady dialogue at night) and the song for vocal ensemble, especially his two collections of songs of love in the form of Waltz (Op 52 Liebeslieder-Walzer and Neue Liebeslieder-Walzer Op. 65) in which the composer from Hamburg shows to what extent can be versatile rhythm of Waltz, beyond the topical harmonisations of the Strauss family, rather than the number six in the first collection ("Ein kleiner, hubscher Vogel nahm den Flug", "a cute little bird flew") remember to some extent to the waltzes of the operetta. In addition, correspond to this training their Zigeunerlieder (Gypsy songs) Op. 103, which appeared eight arranged for voice solo and piano, in which Brahms again leverages his hobby to Hungary from rhythms, though, as it was usual in the 19th, it refinase the folk material.

Has been marked, but that said, the preference of Brahms by the Strophic song varied, as we find it from his Opus 3, first published notebook of songs, and that is excellent example the beautiful An eine Aeolsharfe - at the harp of Aeolus - Op. 19 No. 5. It was not until 1864, date of publication of his Opus 32, when Brahms Board developed composition and its use will be in a progressive decrease until it disappears from the Opus 69 of 1877. The most frequent form of Lied brahmsiano is the varied Strophic in which the composer adheres to the recommendation of Goethe vary the melody according to the text.

However, the road to serious songs shows progressive deepening in which real milestones are as well known as the mentioned Von Ewiger Liebe, Herbstgefuhl - parts feeling autumnal - Op. 48 nº 7, Feldeinsamkeit - solitude in the forest - Op. 86 No. 2, Der Tod, das ist der kuhle Nacht - death, such is the fresh night - Op 96 No. 1 or, in a very special way Auf dem Kirchhof - a cemetery-Op. 105 No. 4, which cites the coral of deceased Hertzlich tut' mich verlangen was the favorite of Bach.

Johannes Brahms. Symphony No. 1. first movement.

Johannes Brahms. Hungarian Dance No. 1.

Johannes Brahms. Hungarian Dance No.5.

Johannes Brahms. Waltz, Op. 1.

Discography

Symphonies and instrumental music

Symphonies 1-4; performers: Orchestra Berliner Philharmoniker; Director: Herbert von Karajan. Deutsche Gramophon, D.G. 429 664-2 (3 CDs). Symphony No. 1 Op. 68 in c minor. Director: Wilhelm Furtwängler; -Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. DG 427 402-2. -Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. EMI 321 637-252 - 2 (6 CDs). Symphony No. 1, Opus 68 in c minor; Symphony No. 2, Opus 73 in d major; Symphony No. 3, Opus 90 in f major; Symphony No. 4, Opus 96 in e minor. London Philharmonic Orchestra. Director: Arturo Toscanini. TIS Hu 524 WB (3 CDs). Symphony No. 1 Op. 68 in c minor. Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra. Deutsche Grammophon 427 804-2. Director: Carlo Maria Giulini; Symphony No. 1 Op. 68 in c minor: Philharmonia Orchestra of London. 537-252 132 EMI - 2. Director: Carlo Maria Giulini; Symphony No. 2 Op. 73 in d major. Director: Wilhelm Furtwängler; Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. EMI 321 637-252 - 2 (6 CDs). Symphony No. 2 Op. 73 in d major. Director: Carlo Maria Giulini;. Philharmonia Orchestra of London EMI 537 - 252 222 - 2. Symphony No. 3 Op. 90 in f major. Director: Wilhelm Furtwängler; Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. EMI 321 637-252 - 2 (6 CDs). Symphony No. 3 Op. 90 in f major. Director: Carlo Maria Giulini;. Philharmonia Orchestra of London EMI 537 - 252 222 - 2. Symphony No. 4 Op. 98 in e minor. Director: Wilhelm Furtwängler; Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. EMI 321 637-252 - 2 (6 CDs). Symphony No. 4 Op. 98 in e minor. Director: Carlo Maria Giulini: - 1. New Philharmonic Orchestra of London; 537-252 222 EMI - 2. -2. Wiener Philharmonic Orchester; Deutsche Grammophon 429 403-2. Violin concerto; performers: Anne-Sophie Mutter (violin) and Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra; Director: Herbert von Karajan. Deutsche Gramophon, DG 400 064-2.

Choral music and Lieder

Ein deutsches Requiem opus 45:director: Carlo Maria Giulini; soloists: Barbara Bonney (soprano) and Andreas Schmidt (baritone); Chorus of the Staatsoper of Vienna and Vienna Philharmonic. DG 423 574-2. Ein deutsches Requiem (Brahms) and Te Deum (Bruckner); performers: Barbara Hendricks (soprano) and Janet Perry (soprano), Helga Müller-Molinari (mezzo-soprano), Gösta Winpergh (tenor), José van Dam (bass) Alexander Malta (bass), Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra and Wiener Singverein; Director: Herbert von Karajan. Deutsche Gramophon, D.G. 410 521-2 (2 CDs). Ein deutsches Requiem opus 45: Director: Otto Klemperer; soloists: Elizabeth Schwarzkopf (soprano) and Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (baritone). Choir and London Philharmonic Orchestra. EMI 567-747 238-2. Lieder und Gesänge Opus 32, fünf Gesänge Opus 72, fünf Lieder Opus 94; performers: Thomas Quasthoff (baritone) and Justus Zeyen (piano). Deutsche Gramophon, DG 463 183-2. Lieder; performers: Jessye Norman (soprano) and Daniel Barenboim (piano); Deutsche Gramophon, DG 459469 2 (2 CDs). Lieder (An die ferne Geliebte, In questa tomba dark, etc;) Vier ernste Gesänge, etc); performers: Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (baritone) and Jörg Demus (piano) Deutsche Gramophon, D.G. 415-189-2. Liebeslieder Walzer und for four voices and piano four-hands (opus 52): soloists: Edith Mathis (soprano), Brigitte Fassbaender (mezzo-soprano), Peter Schreier (tenor) and Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (baritone), with Engel and Sawallisch (piano). DG 423 133-2. Lieder opus 43 (Vier Gesänge) (Von ewiger Liebe and others): Kathleen Ferrier (contralto) and Walter (piano); Dec 414 611-2 ZK. Zigeunerlieder opus 103 (numbers 1-8): Jessye Norman (soprano) and Daniel Barenboim (piano). DG 431 600-2. Wie Melodien zieht is mir. Opus 105. (number 1). Jessye Norman (soprano) and Daniel Barenboim (piano). DG 431 600-2.

Bibliography

EINSTEIN, Alfred; Music in the romantic era; Trad. from Elena Giménez (Madrid: 1986).