Biography of Georges Braque (1882-1963)

French painter, creator along with Picasso's Cubism, born on May 13, 1882 in Argenteuil, near Paris, and died in Paris on August 31, 1963.

Violin and newspaper, Braque.

In 1890 he moved with his family to Le Havre, where he began his classical studies. By 1897, it has already befriended with Dufy and together attending night classes at the local school of fine arts. His first paintings date from 1899, year in which begins to work as an apprentice in a wall decorations.

In 1900, he goes to Paris to perfect his training as a Decorator with Labarthe. From 1902, is dedicated entirely to painting. He enrolled in the Academy Humbert, where he met Picabia , and Marie Laurencin. Visit museums and galleries and is interested in Impressionism and by the archaic Greek art as well as the Egyptian sculpture. His painting of those years reflects his thoughts on impressionism.

In 1904, he abandons studies and rented an apartment. The following year Manolo strikes up a friendship with the Spanish sculptor and begins to move away from Impressionism, as shown in boats in the port of Le Havre. In 1906, he presents his work at the Salon des Indépendants and nears the fauves, especially Matisse and Derain. His Fauvism is meditative and lyrical, with bright colors and a strong presence of the composition (landscape from L'estaque of 1906). Their stay in 1907 on the coast of the Mediterranean, convinces him that the color has an emotional function and starts to worry about the problem of volumes and the structuring of the box. Paints in those moments the port of la Ciotat and view of L'estaque from Hotel Mistral. Start your business relationship with art dealer Kahnweiler, through which meets Picasso and Apollinaire. In 1907 for the first time sees the Demoiselles d'Avignon by Picasso that impresses him deeply; the influence of this work is evident in female nude from 1908.

In 1908, he feels dissatisfied with the aesthetic fauve and began studying the work of Cézanne and primitive sculpture. From these two influences his painting is oriented in another direction, in which the formal elements of the picture are solidly and strongly structured. It is the so-called protocubista period. In that same year performs his first solo exhibition in the Gallery of Kahnweiler; the critic Louis Vauxcelles speaks first cube when referring to his exhibition. Between 1909 and 1911, Braque and Picasso delve into their relationship, which will last until 1914 and created a style of painting in which the planes replace volumes and the colours are sober and austere, it is analytic Cubism, named for Apollinaire, to analyze this new painting that pursues and dissects the object, presenting it from different angles. "What attracted me in the first years was the realization of a new spatiality. The first Cubist inquiry was precisely the space; the color had only a modest role: color did not interest us more than its light appearance. The light and space were both intimately linked and we abordábamos them together"(Braque). They are his masterpieces of this period: port of Normandy, El Castillo de la Roche-Guyon, the table, the Portuguese, violin, etc. The contribution of Braque, Cubism is of capital importance: he was the creator of overlapping planes that defined the new space of the painting and was the first to use letters as compositional motifs in the Portuguese of 1911.

In 1912, he married to Marcelle Lapré and comes in contact with the Italian Futurists. Invents the papier collé, carried by the need to provide more reality to the picture: "I wanted to make stroke a form of matter. So I entered in the box paper, sand, sawdust, iron filings. I watched until that point the color depends on the matter"(Braque).

In 1914, is sent to the face and head badly hurt. After his long convalescence, he returned to Paris, where she meets Juan Gris and Henri Laurens. It brings a his Cubism Picasso and Gris finds works as a woman to mandolin and the Sgraffito. Continue painting the same reasons before the war but forms become bolder, and colors tend to grays, Browns and Greens. It publishes thoughts and reflections on the painting. In 1919, performs an important solo exhibition at the Gallery l'effort Moderne. In works such as still life with guitar and the black table, it deviates from the analytical Cubism and color assumes a more predominant role. His classic period, which found recognition and success, begins in 1922, when the autumn exhibition grants you a room for him only. The famous Caneforas correspond to this year. Again, works made in response to Picasso and his classic period, is characterized by monumentality, the frontality and a characteristic treatment of fabrics. In 1923 and 1924, he made the decorations of the ballets of Diaghilev and Milhaud. In 1925, he moved to a new house built by the architect Perret.

In 1929, begins the known as linear neoclassical period, characterized by the presence of decorative curves, especially in nudes. In 1931, he made four large panels of gypsum paragraph in which he represents classical Greek gods and also the number of bathers. It illustrates the Theogony of Hesiod commissioned by Vollard. It begins, in the early 1930s, a first series of paintings with the theme of study culminating in 1939 with the painter and his model, where rightly combines the figure classic, the image of the artist and the picture within the picture.

In 1933, a major exhibition of his work takes place at the Kunsthalle Basel followed, in 1936, with a retrospective at the Palais de Beaux Arts in Brussels. He begins painting interiors in which appears the female figure, as in woman with mandolin, Le Duo. Gets the prize of the Carnegie of Pittsburgh with yellow tablecloth. In 1939 and 1940, enshrined in America with three anthological exhibition (Chicago, Washington and San Francisco). During the period of the war painted views from the window: the toilet, green table and the blue Bowl.

In the early 1940s, his interest in art as a subject of the painting is evident, paddles, spatulas and paintings within the painting appear frequently, culminating in 1949 with the study. In 1947, he signs a contract with Aimé Maeght, which since then will be his dealer. In 1948, gets the prize at the Venice Biennale and last two anthological most in the United States (Cleveland Museum of art) and Museum of modern art in New York. In 1949, it makes decorations for the MolièreTartuffe. Between 1952 and 1954, performs retrospective exhibitions at the Kunsthalle of Berne and at the Kunsthaus in Zurich. He made the stained glass windows of the Church of Vanrengeville-sur-mer. In 1956, ending the series of the ateliers, eight pictures of large-format, complex composition. In 1958, you are granted the Feltrinelli prize. Between 1959 and 1962, he feels sick and can hardly paint; It draws much and makes designs for jewelry. Held in the Louvre the exhibition entitled L'Atellier of Braque.

Bibliography

CARRA, Massimo: The paintings of Braque (Milan: Rizzoli, 1971).