Biography of Marcel Lajko Breuer (1902-1981)

American architect. He was born in 1902 in Pécs (Hungary) and died in 1981 in New York. He moved to Vienna in 1920, where the system of the Bauhaus, Walter Gropius, disappointed the eclecticism and the lack of practical purpose of the teachings of the Art Academy underwent. It belonged to the first generation of students of the Bauhaus and greatest interest was, from the beginning, design and the creation of furniture, which allowed him, in 1924, access the address of Bauhaus section, giving much more rational and objective production and methods of school. This activity as a furniture designer led him to interior decoration.

In 1924, recent graduate, he had developed a series of methods for the construction of tables, chairs and Footstools, based on frameworks of molded steel tubes, which meant a big news around the world. One of his most famous designs, the Chair S (1928), steel tube and no hind legs, still figure among the most recent chairs. Continuing his work as a designer, he was in charge of designing all the furniture for the new premises of the school of Arts and crafts and held until 1928 numerous designs of chairs and armchairs in Switzerland and England, introducing innovations in form and material, such as the use of curved wood, great influence, or the realization of the structure in aluminium.

In 1928, Breuer left the Bauhaus, Gropius, Bayer and Moholy-Nagy, at the height of the success of the school, and provided greater dedication to his work as an architect and interior designer, in Berlin. These four architects were commissioned, in 1930, of the representation of Germany in the exhibition at the Grand Palais in Paris, where the Breuer presented the project furniture: a 10-story apartment as ideal framework of German production. In the following years he took part in numerous competitions and carried out urban planning projects, theatres and factories.

After the rise of Hitler to power, M. Breuer was established in England, from 1935, and collaborated with F. R. S. Yorke Amering House on Sea (1936) and with Roth in the houses of Doldertal (1936), in Switzerland. Also, for the London Isokon firm, projected a series of metal furniture and curved contrachapeado.

When Walter Gropius, appointed director of the Seccesion of architecture at Harvard University, requested the help of Breuer to work in their partnership. Shortly after they founded an architecture office in Cambridge, Massachusetts, that lasted until 1941. Many very different works, due to the predominance of one or the other personality and ease of Breuer to find a new way to resolve each case came from the fruit of the union of these two architects. Buildings which built together were dwellings for both designers, House Ford Lincoln, the House Frank in Pittsburg, the Black Mountain College (1939), the House Chamberlain Weyland (1940), the neighborhood of working-class homes in New Kensinton (1941) and the artistic centre of the Sarah Lawrence College in Bronxville (1951).

M. Breuer opened his own Studio in New York in 1946. After early years dedicated to the construction of minor works, she was commissioned in 1952, in collaboration with Nervi and Zehrfuss, projecting the new Unesco building in Paris, completed in 1957; It was his leap to fame. From this moment on, followed orders and projects without any pause: monastery in Minnesota, laboratories and centers of research, factories, official buildings and embassies in Europe and United States, cultural buildings, colleges and universities spread across North America, etc. An endless list of works and projects, all with the unmistakable clarity of your style. His constructions, fully functional and rationalist, as its known houses with floor H-shaped, with separate areas for day and night, contrasted strongly with the rest of the buildings of modern architecture. His last works, as stores Bijenkorpf (1957) in Rotterdam, the Embassy of USA (1960) in the Hague, the Mall in Caracas (1960), the convent of the Annunciation in Birsmark (1961), the Centre (1962) IBM La Gaude, the Whitney Museum in New York (1967) and the Cleveland Museum (1970), along with the rest desu architectural workthey were and are a production of undeniable influence on new generations of architects and the big movements as the constructive, which experienced Russia and Western Europe shortly after 1925.

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