Biography of Lorenzo Calvo de Rozas (1780-1850)

Spanish politician, born in Ranedo (Vizcaya) June 23, 1773 and died in Madrid on May 6, 1850.

Married twice, the first with María López of the Huesa, the second with Catalina Pérez, had a single son named Juan Luis Calvo Perez.comerciante of prosperous fortune, in 1798 he moved to Madrid, where in 1800 individual of the Government Board of the Bank of San Carlos, and in 1804 was appointed first director of the society of merchants formed by order of Carlos IV to provide grains to the United, in the severe famine of that year. It formed part of the Commission to organize a Consulate-General, which should be established in Madrid. In 1808 was the owner of six houses in the capital and had interests in Malaga, Cadiz, Lisbon, La Mancha and Alicante. Total estimated him a fortune of 4,500,000 reais.

The war of independence will change your life. The 8 may 1808 his wife decided to leave Madrid, to Aragon for being this French-free region. Bald Rozas followed his steps the 25th, arriving at Zaragoza on 28 May. Palafox did stop, it said that it accepted to contribute to the defence of the city and region. His inspired already by May 31 gave Palafox a manifesto, justifying to the world the Aragonese insurrection.On 3 June he was appointed interim General intendant of the army and Kingdom of Aragon and Corregidor and police judge of Zaragoza. His influence on Palafox was decisive for this were decided to join Aragonese Cortes, in whose first meeting, June 9, 1808, was appointed Secretary of the same. The courts only had a session, because the military issue became predominant. Frenchmen entered Aragon on June 8, and the next day reached the courts the first news about the disasters of the Aragonese troops. Palafox quickly organized the defense and was found with Rozas Calvo in the battle of Alagón (June 14), in which was defeated. While Palafox tried to organize resistance in the White House, where he was again defeated, Rozas Calvo was the sole authority who organized the defense of Zaragoza, from June 15 - until the 24th of the same month in which became the Marqués de Lazán - and even then, his courage and initiative were fundamental to maintain the spirit of defence in the city.Appointed by the Board of Zaragoza, June 26, 1808, to solemnize the oath to defend it, that is prescribed to officers and soldiers. To receive in Zaragoza, the office of the Council of Castile of August 4, 1808, on the defence of Madrid, made Palafox answering 10, reporting how many of the members of the Council, or seduced or perverse, adopted the French party (Ignacio Martínez Villela and Luis Marcelino Pereira), while others were kept in a guilty indecision, and entering the French in Madrid all Council became a mere executor of intrusive government regulations.When the French built the first site of Zaragoza, Calvo de Rozas, believing his mission accomplished Palafox requested permission to retire to his home in Madrid, but Palafox understood it otherwise, naming him property for both destinations, the 15 August 1808, and praising his zeal and patriotism.

With the creation of the Central Board, Calvo de Rozas was named their individual by Aragon, together with the count of Sastago and brigadier Francisco de Palafox y Melzi (26 August 1808), but having back Sástago in Zaragoza, were Francisco de Palafox y Rozas Calvo as unique members of Aragon on the Central Board. The same 26th of August he signed a Circular to accordingly to the manifesto of the excmo. Mr. Capitán General of this Kingdom of the 15th of this month has directed by the Mayor to the very Reverends archbishops and bishops of Spain and India, which exalted the meaning of the first site of Zaragoza and opened a subscription magna, in Spain and America, on behalf of the survivors (published in the Gazeta de Zaragoza, n. 7330 August 1808 and in the Madrid daily, n. 40, on September 16, 1808). He took office on September 25, but already 13 signed a manifesto, appeared also in the Madrid daily, numbers 39 and 40, 15 and September 16, 1808, that twinning the spirit of the two cities, Madrid and Zaragoza.En the exercise of his office showed great character, always taking public measures, both on the military and financial, with a noble sense of the public interest. Particularly notable was his constant defense of the interests of Aragon, for his role in the liberation struggle of Spain. Aware of the legal dignity of his office, he opposed all the abuses, and manifested supporter of freedom of printing and the call for cuts. Very important is the proposal made to the Central Board in 28 of September 1808 (that is, on the third day of its installation) in Aranjuez, which was published only in the editor, number 276, 16 March 1812. He defended the need for a power Executive, composed of few people, energetic and quick, so you unify all military actions. Already on this occasion speaks of a military Junta. "The time pressure made that each province after their way; "this must cease, and established fixed and invariable rule".November 24, 1808 he insists on the creation of a military Junta, composed by Morla, Eguia and the Minister de Guerra. This was soon attacked: who the best Patrick signs writes to Floridablanca, Zaragoza on November 26, 1808, that is happy with Palafox, but not with the Central Board, "as delegates from the provinces have chosen each other sovereign or wrens". Especially attacking Rozas Calvo as not being Aragonese, for being selfish and "Banquirrotista", and even suspected that the French are with him, because they were about to catch him prisoner, and not made it. The brother of Calvo de Rozas, who represents big ambitions bother you also much. Trust in Palafox, as already mentioned, and Reding, Coupigni, Marqués de la Romana, the Mayor Mariano Domínguez and general Doyle.

He was one of the Commissioners by the Central Board in December 1808, between the vowels of her womb, to enable the Organization of an army that met in Almaraz (Cáceres) for defending the port of Miravete and bridges of Almaraz and of the Archbishop, as well as to accelerate the necessary fortifications. Shortly thereafter, on July 31, 1809, undertakes it to provide food and assistance to the sick and wounded of the Allied army from Talavera and Extremadura (September 5 was replaced by Góngora Cristóbal).

He said contrary to the establishment of the Regency, as proposed by the Marquis de la Romana, and asked courts opening on September 8, 1809 to November 1, 1809. The cuts would be the only body qualified to resolve the problem of the Executive, in application of the law of starting, title 19, p. 2. Author of a Circular that for the appointment of deputies in cuts arranged and directed to the Kingdom of Aragon his representative, print in Seville sent that no power is Gayan, to do so in Teruel, but occupation prevented him enemy of Teruel and the mutiny of Seville of January 24, 1810. Although not he published in Teruel then, know that it was circulated by all peoples.Should you also presentation on September 14, 1809 in the Central Board, appeared finally in the editor, n. 317, on April 27, 1812. He also wrote a few exceptions (Seville, January 20, 1810), referred to in its article of October 18, 1811. The Circular was published finally in Cadiz, on October 1, 1812 (is it published by Gadea with the Aragonese heading). It is a kind of manifesto clearly bourgeois and modern: do not choose churchmen or aristocrats. On the contributions of war it sought that rich nor friars who would cut and run there is no. He denounced the reactionary ideas of the Marquis of la Romana, who denounced by francophile, and always maintained the legitimacy of the Central Board. Only when this was moved to Cadiz, and held the Sevillian revolution, promoted by Montijo and his friends (January 24, 1810) he proposed the appointment of a Regency of five members (the Bishop of Orense, Saavedra, seat, chestnut or Blake and the Duke's Park), in avoidance of anarchy, and to put an end to the shameful behavior of some individuals.

He developed his ideas of military reforms and measures proposed in 1809 for the Organization and good attendance of the armies and notice interesting for those who have made services to the fatherland in the present national war (Cádiz, 1810). He published a regulation that gave the interim Council of Regency the Supreme Central Junta, against which protested the Marqués de Lazán in paragraphs 45 and 46, 11 and January 13, 1811, of the patriotic Tertulia in Cádiz: wanted to have had no art or part in the fall of the Central Board. Said Calvo Rozas in the same newspaper, n. 54, January 29, 1811, and pulled apart, Cádiz, 1811, where he said that the Board established in Seville, to the fall of the Central, had intended to be absolute and sovereign, and was led by the count of the Montijo and Francisco Palafox, brother-in-law and brother respectively of the Marqués de Lazán. Also protested a pamphlet entitled observations on libel published by Don Lorenzo Calvo de Rozas entitled: regulation, etc., leaving the defense of the Marquis of la Romana. Said Calvo, hidden under the pseudonym of L. laughter, with errata faith that should be added to the observations or libel that this title has published the so-called and disguised J. Amso. Osma replied to beatings, and it was picked up by Gallardo in its advocacy of bats (Cádiz, February 1811). Attached to laws that publishes a Spanish so they serve as Appendix to the Gazette of Cadiz from February 19, 1811, and notice your Edictor and all those who offend the truths as the rays of the Sun to which have damaged eyesight (Cádiz, 1811).

I could not suspect that new Regency could make him subject to fierce persecution, under the pretext of the accounts of the Administration, especially in the exercise of a mission near the army of Extremadura. Arrested on February 6, 1810 (as did part Esteban Fernández de León, who had resigned the 4), is him imprisoned in the Castillo de San Sebastián de Cadiz 8, while his wife and the Secretary of the provincial Council of Aragon, Narciso Meneses, were arrested and taken as criminals to the frigate peace. Antillon said in letter of April 12, 1810, who had arrested "one of the best Patriots" of Spain. Representations by Calvo de Rozas for Justice, only produced an order of the Council of Regency of 11 may 1810 ordering is not set you in the future.

He published patriotism pursued treason by arbitrariness and selfishness (Cádiz, 1810), which also resulted in long controversy. He was one of the first to answer the general Francisco Ramón de Eguía and López de Letona attacks you, and also to the Prosecutor Manuel Gómez García, in legal statement to the paper entitled "Pursued patriotism" (Cádiz, 1810). In patriotism complained of the conduct of the Governor of Cádiz Andrés López de Sagastizábal, who would have reconvened the Governor of the Castle by his humanity with the prisoner; but Florentino López de Sagastizabal rectify, saying that the counterclaim was held because, being held in incommunicado detention, the Governor allowed Rozas Calvo eat with the other prisoners, and even leaving the Castle (letter in patriotic Tertulia in Cádiz, n. 58, February 7, 1811).The Seville hearing decreed their freedom on October 17, 1810, order which took place 19. The fate suffered by the pursued patriotism resulted in Rozas Calvo letter number 9 of the political Goblin, immediately refuted by Antonio Cano Manuel in Appendix to the number 9 of the newspaper titled the political Goblin: do not find printer, appeared finally in supplement to the Curt, June 20, 1811. Also in the Gazette of the Regency of the same June 20 published an article on this topic, which resulted in a "notice" of Rozas Calvo in the editor, n. 25, 9 of July 1811, where he denied that he had described as traitor to the Supreme Board of censorship, and called for, ultimately, justice.

He published a representation to the National Congress, claiming their rights, justice, and the observance of laws, dated March 15, 1811 (Cádiz, 1811, and reprinted in Valencia, 1811). And then representation addressed to the Regency Council of June 15, 1811, anniversary of the 1808, in which the Aragonese defeated the French army at the memorable battle of the Eras of Zaragoza. And some observations on printers, Cádiz 1811 Censorship Board (includes another representation of 27 June 1811). Asks passport to Cuenca, rations and medicines to which he is entitled, and that paid him 300,000 Reals that has supplied on behalf of the realm to build the division of Aragon.

October 21, 1811 he published an important article in the editor, dated in Cadiz on day 18. Motivates the article an assertion of the vindicated Spain that the Central Board had agreed the meeting courts by strata, or separate cameras. According to Calvo Rozas "or the Central Board had agreed that courts compusiesen of strata, or came to definitely fix the exceptions of individuals of greatness, and high clergy, have been dissolved on 31 January same;" as a result of the mutiny of Seville 24 ". Inserts, as demonstration, the copy of the note to certified D.Narciso Meneses, Secretary of the provincial Council of Aragon, appears to the folio 123 such Secretariat on book call cuts great and high clergy. It consists in this note introduced at the session of the Central of January 20, 1810 a Commission consultation of cuts on that instead of a camera had two, which had already been refused by previous agreement, according to the note; and then Rozas Calvo put exceptions that should be written to exclude some: "1. who signed the Statute of Bayonne." 2 where it have after a juror, or admitted their jobs. 3. the military not sick nor disabled not incorporated into our banners. 4. those who have not done any service to the country. 5. the defendants either failed, or debtors to the State". "It was agreed that this note was the Commission of Cortés."The 14 November 1811 the courts judges censored Modet y Ramón Pelegrín, by its excesses in the unfair imprisonment of Calvo (the first arrived to detain the woman, family and friends of Calvo, and the second illegally prolonged prison). An article reported in Cadiz in November 15, 1811, published in the editor, n. 165, November 26, 1811, sets the conduct with him the previous Regency, and the Marquis of the Hormazas. It lies by saying that it did not account amounts to its name for the Patriots of Aragon.

The correspondence that followed in 1809 with Aragon is printing. Speculative travel to Cadiz: have never existed. Commission of Extremadura: Hormazas says judge Modet on September 10, 1809 presented accounts on February 17, but on 26 February judge Pelegrín says that it has not given account. In his office on October 21, 1809 José Ecenarro realized the use of money. Finally, the courts have appointed a tribunal, as requested on December 29, 1810. Other writing: news of the sums that occurred in America subscription opened by M. RRs. Archbishops and bishops in favour of widows and orphans of the defenders of the immortal Zaragoza, and explanation of the mistakes that have incurred cuts D. Pedro María Ric, Deputy in the report released to S.M. on 4 August this year (Cadiz, November 1811). More incidents: December 9, 1811 was lost the manuscript of the cause of Rozas Calvo, according to notice appeared in commercial Journal of Cadiz, from December 10, 1811. Cause the courts dealt in 1811 and 1813, condemning the conduct of the judges, who had needlessly prolonged prison Rozas Calvo (their names were Miguel Modet y Ramón López Pelegrín). On the subject wrote the own Rozas Calvo: a notice, as Cádiz on February 1, 1812, indicates that the view will take place on day 3 (Editor, n. 234, 3 February 1812). Defends against Manuel Santurio García Salas (Editor, n. 239, on February 8, 1812). Bald in a connected, in Cadiz on March 24, 1812 article, Editor, n. 286, on March 26, 1812, 1126, denounces the contradictions of the judgment, insists that it is not a particular business: time consuming "only against the intrigues and the influence of the powerful, management of offenders, dark and subtlety of the courts". Defend your honor and your family. Taking foot in this article defends against the Aragonese M.P., who met during the first siege of Saragossa, and gives the Interestingly that in its five judges, three were advisers appointed by the first Regency, i.e., in the terrible censorship of explicit in the aforementioned reply Palafox to the Council of Castile, that M.P. republish (Business Journal of Cadiz(, no. 99, on April 8, 1812). This explains many things. It publishes warnings making D. Lorenzo Calvo from Rozas to the manifesto just published D. Ignacio Martínez de Villela, (Cádiz, on May 7, 1812). The same month of may he published a manifesto entitled truths based on authentic documents exposed to the sovereign national Congress, which gives the list of pursuers, with other documents. On 14 June 1812 he led a trade to the President of the courts, published in a suplememto the Spanish Robespierre, according to August 26.He 2 August 1812, from the island of Leon, addresses again to the courts, asking for Justice, but hopeless for it, because those against which seeks it today occupy the top positions: counselors of State, Ministers of the Supreme courts of Justice, war and Navy, and Secretaries of the office. He states his intention to move to Aragon, to give an account of its management while he was a member of the Central Board, convinced that there does not forget him. Please retype the 26th of August.A month later, on island of Leon on September 2, 1812, forwards the precedent in written to the mercantile Journal of Cadiz, because it has not effectively had no response (published at number 81, of 20 September 1812). And before the question of a reader, Ildefonso Antonio Nieto, on the identity of the persecutors of Calvo de Rozas, this returns the names (Isla de León, on September 26, 1812, mercantile Journal of Cadiz of the 30. They are Francisco Javier Castaños, Juan Pérez Villamil, counsellors of State; Jerónimo Antonio Díez, Manuel Castillo Negrete, Francisco Ibáñez Leiva, Ramón López Pelegrín, Ministers of the Supreme Court of Justice; Antonio Cano Manuel, who was from the Supreme Court of Justice, currently of the firm; Ramon Navarro Pingarrón, Manuel Ruiz del Burgo, the Tribunal's Ministers of war and Navy.

Again the 28 October 1812, from the island of Leon, refers to the lack of response from the courts, denouncing the shamelessness of some kind of men, their weakness and their passions on the occasion. Think of the judges, which "prostituting his Ministry (which boils down to apply the law to the facts) have become arbiters of same, dispensing laws who found them, of their observance, and leaving the minor repair to the innocence". Attached to this letter, posted in Cadiz, n. 38 mercantile journal, November 18, 1812, a copy of the trade that sent to the President of the Cortes on 26 August 1812.En a notice to all citizens who have given proof of integrity and love for the independence of his homeland (Isla de León, 1812, 1813 Cadiz) - also known as notice to the representatives of the Spanish nation - asked that they care for it to ensure compliance the resolutions emanating from the courts and the Constitution itself, because if they will not be as he pursued. To be attacked by a challenge, replica Rozas Calvo with the Challenger challenged or reply to anonymous pamphlet published on 14 March last, which is signed (not so) the friend of truth, and titled challenge to Don Lorenzo Calvo de Rozas manifesto entitled notice to representatives of the Spanish nation (Cadiz1813).Insists on two separate "sent items", Isla de León on April 1, 1813 and Cadiz on June 15, 1813, published in patriotic Tertulia, n. 46, on April 6, 1813, and n. 62, on June 22, 1813. We know from the first carrying a case against general Eguía. He replied also to manifest Ignacio Garcini (Mercantl Diario de Cádiz, on January 11, 1812, dated 7), giving as an argument the courts act General of Aragon, which was printed in Zaragoza in October 1808. It also gave a summary of the facts for the instruction of all the deputies of the Cortes (Cadiz, on April 30, 1813.

The political change of 1814 meant Rozas Calvo new persecution. A trade of Manuel Mazarredo, Madrid 25 June 1814, addressed to general quartermaster military, ordered, at the request of José de Palafox, who to retain the third part of the salary, so go giving the aforementioned Duke of Zaragoza, because it is so instructed in the cars that are followed in their court at the request of Palafox against iton payment of 12.681 reales de vellón with 28 receives, from the general and costas, whose amount the conducive writ of execution was issued. I don't know the merits of the case, but cause some surprise see Palafox already in June 1814 acting judicially against Calvo de Rozas. It which was confined in Coria (Cáceres), by order of September 12, 1815 1814.En moved to Plasencia, and at undetermined date joined Talavera de la Reina. August 15, 1818 he was again detained, by order of Lozano de Torres, under denouncement of alferez Manuel Santurio.En the June 1820, already governed the Constitution, was declared free of any charge and punished the bad faith of sanctuary. On 4 June 1820 he appears in the fountain of gold, club with a few days later to become President. On June 23, 1820 general Director of revenue was appointed and 9 July 1821, and member of the Board of Aranceles.segun a list of the General archive of Palacio used Masonic Caton 3rd name. He was appointed Minister of finance February 28, 1823, although in an abnormal situation. It was relieved on April 20. To this period belongs his finance Plan. Early in 1824, it was first expelled from Cartagena, and on 5 February of the same year, from Alicante to Murcia. It later allowed him to return to Madrid.

On September 23, 1831 it appears as President of the patriotic society of Madrid. On September 20, 1833 is summoned you order transfer to Osma, order which refused to comply by invoking the 30 its military jurisdiction. You want to be treated with dignity and immunity of its class, and adds a very significant sentence: cannot be treated "as it can be a journeyman or an offender"; Although he was confirmed on 12 October that should leave, 17 achieved the annulment of the order.

On July 24, 1834 he was again detained, complicated in the Elizabethan conspiracy, whose vague character is not matter to discuss here. It was released on August 4. In December 1834 he requests to be placed as quartermaster at the military State, which has published the following year, but failed because a note says although it is noticeable that it is one of the oldest army quartermasters, not consisting in the General offices (illegible signature). It is included, on the other hand, from 1836.Nueva detention on November 17, 1836, whom in the "dream conspiracy" of that year, denounced by Diego Fenollar, Nicolás Salazar and Felipe Pasca, although it regretted accusing in turn the bad faith of Pius Pita Pizarro. On 22 November he presented from jail a Plan to end the civil war, that the courts were studied but not adopted, and that Martínez de laRosa or Toreno interested them, and only Mendizabal took some elements of it, but they say evil. He also denounced the existence of a Central Board of conspirators in Madrid in which he accused the Jesuits.It was released in January 1837. On July 12 of this year claims that reaches that has paid you in its favor of 81.779 real, accrued until end of April 1828, as intendant of the army. This request is part of a promoted record that will match you with others of its kind in the payment of salary: on 26 July 1837 estimated that it is not please, but strict justice (signature Gazzo).In a letter dated in Madrid to May 16, 1839, and published in the gibberish, n. 118, 17 may 1839, presents his social ideas: proposes that the lands of the nation are subdivided and distributed free in small batches to military, militia and day laborers. It attributed the idea to the Central Board, which tried to go to relieving the fate of low people, to prepare the future cast through a series of measures. If it did, it was because of the Governments of Fernando VII since 1814. Despite ingenuous proposal, this is important in the whole of social ideas in España.Su personal situation was not very lucid: still in 1843 requests that chairs and a sofa that were seized by the Government in 1823 returned. but they replied, in Madrid to 19 November 1843, which chairs were purchased in 1827, the color mismatch, etc. These petitions reveal, perhaps, an accurate economic situation.

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A GIL NOVALES.