Biography of José Cañizares (siglo XVIII)

Pilot and Spanish Explorer, probably born in Seville in date unknown and died somewhere in the North Pacific at the end of the 18th century.

It was formed in the College seminar of San Telmo, Seville-based institution dedicated to teach nautical Arts young orphans. This Center came out March 20, 1762, although he/she did not complete studies. Reviewed in particular pilotin June 23, 1765, in the Cádiz Academy and was admitted with that office in the Department of San Blas in Nayarit (Mexico) may 24, 1768. Unknown date and average employee to travel from Cadiz to San Blas, the first reference we have is their participation in the first ground match that was intended by the visitador general José de Gálvez to occupy the ports of San Diego and Monterrey (Alta California) in 1769. Under the orders of captain Fernando Javier Rivera y Moncada, Commander of the presidio of Loreto, Cañizares José departed the Mission of Velicatá (Baja California) 24 March 1769 with 25 soldiers and 42 cristianizados Indians of Baja California missions, 3 mules, the Franciscan Juan Crespi. Its task was to carry out astronomical observations at sites where acampasen during the expedition.

After participating in the takeover of the port of San Diego, returned to San Blas on first August 1770, on Board of the San Carlos, captained by Vicente Vila, with the employment of pilotin, after collaborating on probing of the port of San Blas. In the following years he/she participated in numerous supply trips to the presidios and missions of the Northwest of Mexico. In 1771, San Carlos, receiving 35 pesos in salary per month sailed to Loreto in the steamer. This same amount continued to enjoy in the same boat, which was assigned to San Diego with provisions in 1772, under the orders of Miguel de el Pino. On the return journey led to fray Junípero Serra, who went to the city of Mexico to solve various problems bedeviling the missions of California, including supply and bad relations with Governor Pedro Fages. Again as second pilot of San Antonio, captained by Juan Pérez, José Cañizares sailed in 1773 to Loreto, after trying in vain anchor in new settlements of Alta California. At the height of Cape San Lucas, pilots found broken the rudder of the ship, having to take refuge in Puerto Escondido (Loreto), where a Board of officers determined landed food and return to San Blas to put the serious incident to the attention of the authorities.

Several pilots license forced authorities to hand over San Antonio to our pilot in 1774 to lead food and effects to Monterrey, while Junipero Serra considers it very young to go first pilot. The steamer weighed anchor on April 21 with its warehouses full of bastimentos, although they had to anchor again in Mazatlan due to contrary winds. On 3 June he/she came to Monterrey, where he/she met his partner Juan Pérez, who was about to explore the northwest coast by order of Carlos III, starting the Spanish presence in those costs with the new frigate Santiago. Cañizares José Juan Pérez gave spreads that drove and sailed in date ignored to the port of San Diego. Back to San Blas, it led to the captain of the company of volunteers of Catalonia Pedro Fages and the Franciscan Juan Prestamero, Ramón Usón and Sunday Juncosa, who had fallen ill and Father Serra received authorization to dam to San Blas. In this port anchored the steamer Prince on August 30, 1774. On January 12 this year, the viceroy amounted Bucareli second pilot of the Department, giving him seniority over all others.

In 1775, Canizares was pilot of the steamer San Carlos, which catered the port of Monterrey while the frigate Santiago and the schooner Sonora explored the coasts of Northwest in a search of Russian settlements. Our marine served under the orders of Lieutenant frigate Juan de Ayala, who suffered a serious accident that left him bed-ridden most of the trip. 26 June they arrived in Monterrey and on 27 July began the exploration of the port of San Francisco. Port to which returned on 19 September after exploring the entrance and the large Bay, lift a plane and writing several memoirs where described the beauty of the port, its natural qualities and possibilities to sustain an important Spanish colony. José Cañizares wrote a description and rose several planes, which were highly estimated by the authorities. Their promotions were consistent: Ensign February 28, 1776 frigate, first pilot January 12, 1777, and graduate of Alférez de navio graduated on June 3, 1780. In addition, Cañizares received one hundred pesos for their work on the formation of drawings, maps and charts in 1776 and, three years later, Carlos III granted the license to get married with Josefa López Portillo.

In 1776 Cañizares traveled as a pilot in the San Carlos, captained by Lieutenant Fernando Quirós, to supply San Francisco and Monterey. December 28, 1776 he/she went to Lima accompanying Juan Francisco of the Bodega y Quadra, who had the task of acquiring a vessel intended for Department of San Blas. Winery chose a frigate, named favorite, which was renovated, works that Canizares supervised for several months. Finally, December 19, 1777, both marine were heading to San Blas, where it arrived February 21, 1778. In addition to numerous spare parts for the ships of the Department, the frigate led to four passengers and two pilotines: José Tobar Tamarizand Juan Pantoja.

In 1779, Cañizares participated in a new expedition to the Northwest as first pilot of the frigate Favorita, commanded by Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra. Chosen for the trip's two frigates left San Blas on February 11, traveling limited partnership until a storm separated them on April 20. With a difference of ten hours, they returned to gather on May 3 in the port of Bucareli, in whose place they remained until June 15. Cañizares canvassed the port between 1 and 8 June, and participated in other work of the expedition, which succeeded in mapping much of the coast of Alaska, as he/she left captured in a major newspaper that remains unpublished. Carlos III appointed him lieutenant of the frigate on June 3, 1780. Months later, on November 14, 1781, José Cañizares was promoted to Alférez de navio.

In the Decade of the eighties, Canizares made new trips. Between 14 March and 27 October 1784 travelled with the steamer San Carlos, alias the Filipino, to supply the presidios of San Francisco and San Diego, Monterey, Bárbara. In 1787, between June 17 and December 13, captained the favorite bound for Monterey, Santa Barbara and San Diego, and a year later, with the our Lady of Aranzazu steamer travelled between 8 July and December 29, 1788 back to the four presidios altocalifornianos, being the only boat that year visited Alta California. This same mission repeated it in 1789 and a year later, Nootka took the colonial order that Spaniards leave the enclave, port Spain returned to months later.

Cañizares works continued during the Hispanic presence in Nootka, continuing with the trips to several destinations in the North Pacific, but now under the orders of a new batch of officers of the Navy were designed by Carlos IV Department of San Blas. The last trip's news led to Canizares to San Francisco, Monterey and San Diego with troops and materiel between 6 February and July 2, 1796 in the schooner Valdés, who was accompanied by the steamer San Carlos. His trail disappears from the files, without knowing the place and year of his death. We only know that he/she had a son, named Francisco Antonio de Cañizares, who began in 1796 as trainee pilots in San Blas and 1802 got pilotin graduation.

Bibliography

BERNABÉU ALBERT, S. Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra. The discovery of the end of the world (1775-1792). Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 1990.

COOK, Warren. Flood Tide of Empire: Spain and the Pacific Northwest, 1543-1819. New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 1973.

FUSTER RUIZ, F. The end of the discovery of America. California, Canada and Alaska (1765-1822). Murcia, University of Murcia, 1997.

HILTON, L. S. High Spanish California. Madrid, Mapfre, 1992.

PALAU, M. et al., Nootka. Back to a forgotten history, Madrid, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1998.

PESET, j. L. (ed.). Cultures of the northwest coast of America. Madrid, Turner, 1989.

Salvador Bernabéu Albert