Biography of King of Sicilia Carlos I (1226-1285)

King of Sicily, count of Anjou, Maine, and from Forcalquier. Born at the end of March 1226 and died in Foggia 7 January 1285. First King of the two Sicilies of the Anjou dynasty, after 1282 lost the insular part of his Kingdom against the Aragonese and could never carry out its project to expand its area of influence to Byzantium.

Biographical synthesis

Youngest son of the King of France Luis VIII and Blanche of Castile, by being baptized by the Cardinal of Sant'Angelo, it received the name of Stephen, which was only later changed by the Carlos. He did not know his father died before his birth; in the testament of Luis VIII it was established that Carlos should pursue an ecclesiastical career, but the death of his elder in 1232 brothers, Juan and Felipe Dagoberto, opened the succession in the counties of Anjou and Maine, putting him in possession of vast territories in central France. In any case, I was still underage and the Regency fell to his mother. Little is known of the education of Carlos. In 1237 he was at the Court of his brother, segundogenito, Roberto of Artois. Two years later he fell seriously ill. For that time it already had a small personal groomer, which included a bartender, teachers, and clergymen; with fifteen years this Court had expanded and already had a quarterback, servers and pages. He participated for the first time in a company military in 1242, accompanying his brother, King Luis IX, in the campaign against the count of la Marche and the 31 January 1246 married in Aachen with Beatriz, heiress of Provence, after obtaining dispensation from Pope Innocent IV to marry a relative of fourth grade. In spring of the same year, Carlos was armed Knight. He held a long war to subdue the Provence and received the Crown of the Kingdom of Sicily after the battle of Benevento. He was named Senator of Rome on several occasions and dismissed, depending on the dominant party in the city. After the death of his first wife, Carlos married Margarita of Burgundy (23 September 1267) and then poured all their efforts on reconquering the throne of Constantinople for the Emperor Baldwin II, but the outbreak of the revolution of 1282, which put Sicily in the hands of the Aragonese, distracted him from this objective. He died without having regained the Kingdom to Pedro III of Aragon and was buried in the Cathedral of Naples. His son, Carlos IIsucceeded him.

The Government of Provence

The same 1246 Carlos received from his brother, the King, the inauguration of the counties of Anjou and Maine. As count of Provence it must cope with an anti-French party, mainly based in the cities, but Carlos showed from the beginning that he will govern with energy and already in 1246 appointed a seneschal to the Provence, which should take care of finances, justice and the army during the absences of the count. For this job not chose Provencal nobles, but French aristocrats, who would exercise as stewards of two to four years. The major cities of Provence, Arles, Avignon and Marseille, had grown economically during the preceding years, thanks to commercial activities.They tried to become free communes, following the example of the cities of Northern Italy and therefore wanted to shake off the guardianship of the bishops, but above all of the of the count. The riots began in Arles in 1245, before the appointment of Carlos. And although the cities paid tribute to Beatriz, in 1247, under the direction of Barral des Baux, Arles, Marseille and Avignon signed a defensive alliance against Carlos of Anjou. However the activity of Carlos to reinforce the Barcelona authority in Provence was interrupted by his participation in the seventh crusade, led by Luis IX in 1248.

The crusade of San Luis

28 August 1248 Anjou Carlos embarked at Aigues-Mortes along with his wife to participate in the crusade against Egypt that his brother had been organizing since three years earlier. In June 1249 the Crusaders took control of Damietta and in November, after the arrival of Alfonso of Poitou, headed to Cairo. Carlos had the occasion to show its value in combat, but the 6 April 1250 was captured along with his brothers and the rest of the Crusaders. All were released the following month, after the payment of a high ransom. Carlos, who had fallen ill from malaria, asked permission to return to France to deal with the serious issues that were happening in Provence.

Submission of Provence

In 1250 Blanche of Castile managed that the rebels recognize the sovereignty of Carlos, but this recognition did not stop the rebellion. The count returned to Provence in April-of-1251 and could quickly put Arles and Avignon; He began the siege of Marseille in August and the city renounced any resistance following the signing in October of an armistice by Barral des Baux and Carlos. In July 1252, was recognized the right of the count to appoint officials for the city, which could still retain greater autonomy to Arles and Avignon. In this way the Provence was pacified temporarily. But for a short time, because in 1255 Marseille returned to revolt, when Carlos strengthened its relations with Montpellier, the main commercial rival of Marseille. A party that wanted to abolish the clauses of the Treaty of 1252 and return to the communal freedoms was formed in the city. Carlos was in contact with the party that was favorable in Marseille and rose to prepare for their arrival. Thus, in June 1257 Marseilles recognized Carlos and Beatriz sovereignty and jurisdiction on taxes, including those coming from Levante, in Exchange for the freedom of trade; administrative freedom was later limited by the establishment of a vicar of the count.

Before 1258, the county authority was wide and Carlos of Anjou began campaigns to extend his dominions towards the East. At the beginning of year it seized the County of Ventimiglia and the summer of the following year began its expansion in the North of Italy. In June the city of Cuneo and in November underwent Alba and Cherasco, which were followed by Savigliano, Bene and Cornigliano. But the conquest of the eastern front stopped soon, due to opposition from Genoa in the North and the Marquis Pallavicini in the South, allies of Manfred of Sicily and of the Marquis of Monferrato. Before a new insurrection by the people of Marseilles in 1262, Carlos now sought the help of Genoa, who in August signed a Pact of mutual assistance, whereby the count gave also Ventimiglia, Roccabruna and Monaco to the Genoese; Carlos signed a pact with Marseille, thanks to the intervention of the King of Aragon, respecting the letter of 1257 in November. New taxes were not created to the community, but Marseille is committed to contribute thousand soldiers when the count to enter into war. Resolved the conflict of Provence, Carlos could take seriously the offer of the Crown of Sicily, coming years ago.

The Crown of Sicily

The death of the Emperor Federico II in 1250, the Crown of Sicily came to Manfredo, who on the death of his brother, the Emperor Conrad IV, maintained the Regency on behalf of his nephew, Conradino of Swabia (Conrado V). Meanwhile, Pope Inocencio IV tried to seize the Kingdom of imperial orbit, and sought a new sovereign to Sicily. Initially the Pontifical notary, Alberto of Parma, negotiated the conquest of Sicily with Cornualles Ricardo, but his demands were too and from 1253 Carlos of Anjou was the papal candidate. It was offered to him as I feudo Church the entire realm with the exception of Benevento; Neither could Carlos unite his realm with the Empire and should abolish the antieclesiasticas laws of the Swabian dynasty; the count should come November 1, 1253 in southern Italy with a large army. The thorniest points in the negotiations were the financing of the company, exemptions from taxes on the clergy and the legal power of Rome on the clergy of the realm. However Carlos could do is charge of the project because the situation in Provence claimed his attention.

In August of 1261 Urbano IV succeeded Alejandro IV on the throne of San Pedro. It was this Pope, native of Troyes, linked to the Royal House of France and returned to the project to expel from Sicily to Manfredo, who had resurrected the antieclesiastica policy of his father and had been taking hold of the South of Italy with the help of the Muslims of Lucera. Urban IV offered the Crown of Sicily Luis IX of France for his younger brother, but he did not want San Luis violate the rights of Conradino and rejected the proposition; less scrupulous had the own Carlos Alberto from Parma made him the same offer (March 1262) and the Pope wanted to overcome the reluctance of the French monarch, claiming that the conquest of southern Italy was a useful tool for the crusade that King tried to promote as a response to the fall of the Latin Empire. Anyway, the negotiations were long and during Carlos was appointed Senator of Rome (August of 1263). The most discussed topics were the tribute that Carlos should pay annually as a vassal of Rome and their succession. The expedition began with sending troops to Rome in April 1264 and the Pact with the Marquis Of Monferrato Guillermo so you left free passage to the army of Carlos on his way to the South. The death of Urbano IV in October of 1264 delayed campaign, but was retaken the following year after the elevation of Pope Clement IV. Carlos arrived with his army to Rome in may 1265 and was crowned King of Sicily in San Juan de Letran 6 January 1266. January 20 Carlos conquered San Germano and Manfredo withdrew to Benevento. There took place the battle of February 26, 1266 led to Manfredo to death and the rout of the army Swabian German, opening the door of the Angevin conquest of the Kingdom of Sicily, which was renamed the Kingdom of Naples.

Carlos I of Anjou, King of Sicily

After the battle of Benevento, it was even more difficult: establishing a solid Government over a country that was only superficially conquered. Carlos dealt initially assert his authority on the mainland part of the Kingdom, leaving the South for later.At first the King kept the Swabian administrative institutions and during the year 1266 filled the Hacienda and reorganized the University of Naples. But already in 1267 formed a coalition, who defended the rights of Conradino, son of Conrado IV, in favour of which deployed an effective propaganda by Florence and the Ghibellines in Northern Italy. The party of Conradino joined also Pisa and Siena, whose merchants had been driven out of Sicily by Carlos in March 1267 and the Prince Henry of Castile, brother of Alfonso X, in addition to the Hafsid of Tunisia. This fact provoked the arrival in Tuscany of the angevinas troops, who in April entered Florence and expelled by the Ghibellines. Carlos of Anjou was appointed Podestà of Florence for six years and then received or awarded himself the titles of "Peacemaker of Tuscany" and imperial vicar.

At the end of 1267 Carlos enemies could eliminate their influence in Rome and at the beginning of the year following Conradino supporter of Anjou led his town army southward, at the time he received the excommunication of Pope Clement IV, always. The Pope also preached the crusade against Conradino. However in the summer of 1268 what had begun as an insurrection of the Muslims of Lucera became an authentic uprising of all Apulia and Calabria against Carlos, instigated this insurrection by Ciro Rinaldo, faithful to Conradino. Carlos I had to abandon the siege of Lucera, which was from may, and organized his army in Campi Palentini, to battle the army of Conradino, besides thickened by Castilian mercenaries. Finally both hosts were found near Tagliacozzo 23 August 1268 and the most modern military tactics of the Angevins against the greater number of warriors of the Swabian prevailed in the battle that followed. Conradino was captured while trying to escape to Rome and in October was transferred to Naples and sentenced to death.

Conrado v (Conradino) disappeared for ever a dangerous candidate to the throne of Sicily and was a step towards the consolidation of the dynasty, whose situation was still difficult because of the insurrection in Apulia and Sicily, now held by Federico de Castilla and Corrado di Capece. The resistance ended in the summer of 1270 and only then could Carlos face the reorganization of his Kingdom.

The reorganization of the Kingdom

Since 1270 Carlos I handed the numerous vacant fiefs by the executions or the flight of the supporters of the Swabian French and Provençal and with your help rebuilt the organization based on the previous model. At the head of the Kingdom was the Magna curia regia, which functioned as a kind of Council of State and once a year, expanded by jurists and financial officers should meet in curia generalis. Held the highest rank among the officers of the Court the Constable ('comestabulus'), head of the army, followed by the Admiral, Supreme Chief of the fleet. Below them were the magistri iustitiaratus or iustitiarii, with powers in justice and administration. The Protonotary exercised various functions, including the preparation of documents. The waiters of the Kingdom had as mission monitoring the proper functioning of the Court and the finance. Carlos introduced also the French Office of Marshal, on which rested the Superintendency of barracks, the provisioning of the army and fortresses and military jurisdiction.

The broad legislative production of Carlos does not constitute an organic unity, but it was posted with successive decrees. Similar to the law in force in the southern Italy, Carlos legislation was based on Roman and Canon, rights with elements of French customary law. Suaba organization Carlos respected subdivision in eleven provinces, each one with a righteous head, with responsibility for the Administration, justice, and finance; they had to deal with the execution of the actual decrees and ensure the maintenance of order. There were judges of first instance for criminal cases and judges of appeal for resources. In the flat tax was imposed a subventio generalis, which rested on all subjects, it was calculated by the taxatores and collected by the executores. In addition were other indirect taxes and transit rights which caused the moodiness of the population against the Angevin domination and the exodus towards the ecclesiastical lands, in that the tax burden was lower.

The financial organisation of the Kingdom corresponded to the regia camera, which was called Tresor from 1277. Magistri was this an organ composed by four rationales and a notary, which corresponded also responsibility for the actual file. Given the wide activity of the Royal Chancellery was very high the number of officers who worked on it, under the direction of Protonotary: magister iustitiaratus dealt with letters of Justice and magister rationarii of financial documents. The mundum in redacted documents were initialled and corrected by the Chancellor, who sealed off and referred the documents; If necessary the Chancellor had the power to issue documents concerning the administration.

In ecclesiastical politics 1265 agreements imposed on Carlos very rigid rules as to the maintenance of the freedom of the Church. In this context the restitution of expropriated church property, the election of bishops by the Curia, abstention from intervention in Church Affairs and the tax exemption of the clergy is framed. But these conditions were not respected, as was denounced by Pope Clement IV. In terms of the Greek Church of the realm, located mostly in Otranto, Sicily and southern Calabria, were respected the provisions in common law at the Fourth Council of Lateran and the second for Lyon.

Projects for the conquest of the East

Since Carlos of Anjou followed the Neapolitan Crown showed as heir to the projects of the Sicilian Kings and already in 1267 obtained the acquiescence of Pope Clement IV when it presented its plan to organize a crusade whose objective would be to regain the throne of Constantinople for the Emperor Balduíno II. The King thought thus extend its influence on the Greek area. It was agreed that Acaia (Morea) would remain in the hands of Guillermo de Villehardouin until his death; If you die without heirs would happen to Felipe, son of Carlos; and if this died without male descendants in turn, as it happened, the Morea would happen to Carlos or his successor. In 1269 the monarch expressed his intention to contribute 2,000 men a year to contribute to the reconquest of Constantinople and to the restoration of Baldwin II. To change Carlos would receive sovereignty over the Acaia, Epirus and Corfu and a third of the territories which are people. These agreements were sanctioned through clever marriage policy: his second daughter married in 1273 to Felipe de Courtenay, eldest son of the titular Emperor of Constantinople; his son Felipe, proclaimed King of Sardinia in 1269, married in 1271 with Isabel, daughter and heiress of the Prince Guillermo de Acaiá. Negotiations also began in 1269 to marry Carlos, heir to the Kingdom, with María, daughter of Esteban V King of Hungary; and the firstborn of the Magyar King, Ladislaus, the third daughter of Carlos, Isabel. The foundations of the future dynastic Angevin line in Hungary were sitting so, but the immediate effect of these marriage projects was increasing the pressure on Venice and Byzantium.

The eighth crusade, led by San Luis, whose objective was first to the reconquest of the Latin Empire, could only favour the plans of Carlos, but in 1270 the expedition ended disastrously in Tunisia, including the death of Luis IX, the King of Sicily left the war against Byzantium preparations to marched with the fleet to Tunisia, where forced al - Mustansir to sign a Treaty of ten years which opened the territory to the trader Italians.

In March 1272, after almost four years of vacancy, he was elected Pope Gregory X, whose efforts turned towards union with the Greek Church and the reconquest of the Holy land. Attempts of reconciliation that the Pope had already treated in Syria with Miguel VIII were incompatible with the aspirations of conquest of Carlos of Anjou and Gregorio, as Italian, saw the French domination of Italy with bad eyes. On the other hand Miguel VIII Paleólogo understood that the union of the churches would be the best letter to play to avoid the Angevin invasion of Byzantine territory and 6 July 1274 Envoy, Jorge Akropolites, swore the acceptance of the controversial tenets, while the Pope ensured the maintenance of the Greek Rite. The project of reconquest of Jerusalem took a boost when in 1275 the Rudolf of Hapsburg emperor took the cross. They resurrected then claims the rights to the throne of Jerusalem, in Ugo III of Cyprus and Antioquía María people; the last sold their rights to Carlos in Exchange for an annual income and from July 1277 Carlos used the title of King of Jerusalem. Shortly after he launched the fleet against San Juan de Acre and did recognize his title to most of the barons of the Latin and the Knights Templar; Tyre and Beirut remained faithful to Ugo III. Carlos retained the lordship, more nominal than real, over the Crusader States of the Holy Land, until his death. Immediately after this began the attacks of Qalawun romper on the coastal towns of the Crusaders, who led the conquest of San Juan of Acre and the end of the Christian States.

The great crusade planned by Gregorio X is not put into practice after his death (1276). This happened partly because of the short duration on the throne of his successors: before the election of Nicolás III in November 1277 three successors of Gregorio X had also died. During his pontificate, Carlos got the Alliance of the despot Nicephorus of Epirus (1279), but the Pope tried to achieve conciliation between Carlos and Miguel VIII, which still maintained a military advantage. By that when Nicolás III died in 1280 the Anjou used all his influence so that he was elected a Pope who collaborate with their aspirations and got it in February 1281 when Martín V bound tiara. The Pope immediately nullified any progress that had been achieved in two decades on the subject from the union of the churches. Encouraged by having again the papal support, Carlos sought the help of Felipe de Courtenay and the Venetians to retake the project of conquest. Papal support was swift: in November 1281 Martín V excommunicated Miguel VIII. The Allied forces were to have been met in Corfu 1 may 1282, but never got to do it. The pressure of the Aragonese and antiangevinas revolts in Sicily put an end to the grandiose projects of Carlos built a great empire in the Eastern Mediterranean.

Last years of reign

The outbreak of the Sicilian Vespers in 1282 spring ended Angevin rule over Sicily. When in April, Carlos learned of the rebellion on the island completely abandoned the preparations for the expedition against Byzantium and prepared his troops for the reconquest of Sicily. Meanwhile, the Sicilian rebels were divided between those supporters of offering the Crown of the Kingdom to Pedro III of Aragon, and those who wanted to put the Kingdom under the protection of the Curia. Carlos of Anjou tried first win submission of minions peacefully in order to have their hands free in the East, but when did you submit the Sicilians Messina returned to offer the Crown to Pedro III of Aragon, who this time accepted it and went in Palermo in September. The coronation of Pedro III was the division of the Sicilian Kingdom between the two dynasties: the Aragonese for Sicily and Naples to the Angevins. In its fight against the Aragonese Carlos always had the support of Martín V, which excommunicated Pedro III, and failed to gain the Alliance of his nephew, King Felipe III of France, who was attacking the Aragonese in its own territory to divide their forces. The French monarch failed and the war, which took place mostly in the sea, was favourable to Aragon and his Admiral, Roger of Lauria. In June 1284 it defeated the Angevin fleet and took hold of the heir to the Neapolitan throne, Prince Carlos de Salerno. Supporters of Carlos even retired to Calabria and attempted the conquest of Reggio, but a new failure led to the end of the campaign in August. Carlos spent the Christmas of 1284 in Melfi and at the end of December he moved to Foggia, where seriously ill and died after Testament.

Bibliography

DI BLASI, G. E. Storia del Regno di Sicilia. Catania, 1983.

HEARDER, H. brief history of Italy, Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1966.

MACK SMITH, D. A history of Sicily. New York, Dorset, 1988.

NATOLI, L. Storia di Sicilia. Palermo, 1982.

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