Biography of King of Francia Carlos VIII (1470-1498)

King of France from 1483 to 1498, son of Luis XI and Carlota de Saboya, born in Amboise 30 June 1470 and died in the same place April 7, 1498. It was known as Carlos VIII, the affable.

Sickly by nature, Carlos was educated away from the Court and his instruction was so poor that I didn't even know to read. On the death of his father in 1483, and even though he/she had already served thirteen and could govern alone, associated with the throne, by express provision of Luis XI, his older sister Ana as a Regent; Anna was married to Pedro, Lord of Beaujeu.

Anne of France, during his Regency (1483-1490), had to face the so-called Guerra crazy, in which the great nobles of the Kingdom, led by the nephew of Carlos VIII, Luis of Orleans, rose up against the Regent, which they accused of being a bad influence to the young King. The real reason for the great of the Kingdom was that they considered themselves more rights that Ana to take charge of the Regency. January 5, 1484 nobles imposed a meeting in Tours of the States General. In 1485 Luis of Orleans took up arms but was defeated and imprisoned. He/She was later released and was reconciled with the King, to the point that happen to his death with the name of Luis XII.

The 6 December 1491 he/she married Anne of Brittany, thanks to which the Duchy of Brittany, carrying the bride as a dowry, became part of the territories of the French Crown. Once in power, in 1491, Carlos VIII insisted on achieving the throne of Naples, occupied by a branch of the House of Aragon, which did not hesitate to buy, at an excessive price, the neutrality of the rest of the European powers of the time. To Fernando the Catholic he/she gave the Roussillon and Cerdagne, through the Treaty of Barcelona; Maximiliano I granted to the Emperor, by the Treaty of Senlis, their claims about the Artois, Burgundy and Franche-Comté; and Henry VIII of England promised, in the Treaty of Etaples, the fantastic sum of 745,000 gold crowns. Carlos VIII signed a trade and military alliance with Venice in 1492.

In August 1493, after Fernando el Católico announced that it would withdraw its support to the old Neapolitan King Ferrante I and not get it in the inheritance rights of the French monarch, Carlos VIII into Naples intervention seemed, in the eyes of the monarch, an operation with few risks. But neither Fernando nor the papa Alejandro VI were willing to tolerate that such rights were effective after an armed invasion of Naples, since such action will void the Fernando own rights and those of the Holy See, of which Naples was feudo. In 1494 Ferrante I died and left as a sovereign to his son Alfonso II, to which the papacy was quick to recognize. For his part, Fernando the Catholic, began preparations for the more than possible conflict with France, ensuring the neutrality of Navarre.

27 December 1494 Carlos VIII came to Rome, after passing through Italy without meeting resistance, so the Pope recognized him as King of Naples, Alejandro VI refused, while the Spaniards threatened war if France does not return their conquests. Carlos VIII had crossed Italy triumphant way, cities such as Naples, Milan, Luca, Pisa or Florence received him with open doors, and the Pope himself had to take refuge in the fortress of San Angelo when the French King came to Rome. Before such deployment Alfonso II, frightened, abdicated in Naples in his son Fernando II. The nobility, the village and the Neapolitan army revolted and Carlos VIII occupied the Kingdom without difficulty between the months of January and February. Fernando II fled to Sicily and handed over to the Spanish plazas around the Strait of Messina. The Catholic monarchs responded to the invasion proclaiming their rights over Naples. The French invasion transformed the life of one of the most significant figures of the Italian Renaissance, César Borgia, son of Pope Alejandro VI and that due to the invasion of Carlos VIII changed his ecclesiastical career by Knight weapons.

The Holy League formed by Fernando el Católico, Venice, Milan, papa Alejandro VI, Emperor Maximiliano I and Ludovico Sforza, the Moor was created in March 1495 as a result of the diplomatic activity of the Catholic Kings.

The armies of the League, under the direction of Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, penetrated in Naples in July. Carlos VIII, without any support, and after the military setbacks, decided to leave Italy. Gilberto de Montpensier left in command of an army, totally insufficient, only 12,000 men that you protect all conquests made; While he/she undertook the retreat to France with the bulk of the troops through the lines enemy. The expedition to Italy ended with a failure unprecedented in 1497 were not already any fittings that were left in Italy, they capitulated one after another.

In 1498 the situation in Italy had been transformed at the beginning of the first symptoms in the Italian cities of a strong rejection of the Spanish domination. Carlos VIII who had never renounced their Italian dreams began preparations for a new expedition. In the castle of Amboise, while he/she gathered his armies, he/she suffered an accident that caused her death. It had no male offspring, since his only son, Carlos, had died before him, was therefore succeeded by his cousin, the Duke of Orleans, who ascended to the throne under the name of Luis XII.

At the same time in which the Navigator Cristóbal Colón presented their project to reach the East by sailing westward, his brother Bartholomew presented on behalf of Christopher Carlos VIII, but the French monarch dismissed the idea by crazy.