Biography of King of Francia Carlos X (1757-1836)

King of France born in Versailles October 9, 1757 and died in Gorizia, Venice (Italy), November 6, 1836. He was the fourth son of Luis dolphin and therefore the younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy, who died very young; Luis XVI and Luis XVIII, he succeeded the latter after his death in 1824. He was the last King of the House of Bourbon which ruled France.

By birth, he received the title of count of Artois, and was dedicated in his youth to a life of excessive luxuries and pleasures that became famous in the dissolute Court of his brothers. At age 16 he married María Teresa de Saboya. The marriage was short-lived and Carlos returned to his previous life. At 25 years of age, your financial situation was disastrous, debts reached 56 million and the State had to take care of them.

As one of the higher nobles of France, attending the assemblies of notables, where their uncompromising and reactionary position did you find many enemies. When the French Revolution broke out in 1789, Carlos went into exile and was devoted to plotting with the most intransigent sectors of the European monarchies, to find the necessary support in their idea of militarily take power in France. In 1791 his brother Luis XVI invited him to return to swear the new Constitution, which Carlos refused claiming that his brother was not owner of his acts and that it was captive by revolutionaries.

When in 1793 Luis XVI was executed, her brother, Luis XVIII acceded to the throne and gave the title of count of Provence to Carlos. At that time Carlos was in London trying in vain to obtain support.

During the rule of Napoleón I , little news of the activities of Carlos, are until after the failure of the campaign of Russia made him see chances of success again and returned to the public stage. Carlos was devoted to launch proclamations and protests against Napoleon and the Republic. When the Emperor fell and the allies entered in Paris, the opportunist Carlos was among the winners. Luis XVIII regained the throne, but his bad government made things very easy for the return of Napoleon and the establishment of the Empire of the hundred days. Carlos took refuge in Ghent with his brother until three months after the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo was the second Bourbon Restoration in France, 1815.

During the entire reign of Luis XVIII, more liberal and intelligent than Carlos, disputes between the brothers were consistent, to the extent that Carlos tried unsuccessfully to a coup d'etat. Carlos then devoted himself to bring to her around to all those nostalgic of restoring the old regime. When Luis XVIII died in 1824, Carlos X was recognized as King. His reign lasted until 1830 and in these six years, there was a marked trend reactionary and repressive, a series of measures, such as the censorship of the press, who were completely outdated after what happened in the French Revolution and that found no support from the people has prompted. College students from the large French cities were one of the social sectors that most opposed the reactionary measures of Carlos X; in this environment figures appeared as the Socialist thinker Louis August Blanqui. Some French personalities who strongly opposed the policy of the sovereign were Talleyrand, Favre or Mottier. Responsible for carrying out this real policy was the Minister Villèle, to which popular pressure forced to retire and was replaced by Martignac, of more open and liberal ideas that his predecessor, which was deposed in benefit of the Polignac, one of the most iron defenders of absolutism.

On July 25, 1830 the popular Chamber was dissolved due to the hostility that showed against the sovereign. 27 Paris day dawned full of barricades and the people on the street, Carlos refused to any kind of concessions and brought the army into the streets. July 30 broke out the liberal revolution by across France, with such a force that Carlos was overthrown and forced into exile. Carlos took refuge in England, Scotland, and finally in Gorizia where he died. The revolution put on the throne to Luis Felipe of Orleans, which was quickly recognized by all the European powers with the exception of the absolutist Fernando VII of Spain. Luis Felipe established a constitutional monarchy.

JACJ