Biography of Pedro. Marqués de la Romana Caro y Sureda (1761-1811)

Military Spanish born in Palma de Mallorca from October 3, 1761 and died in Cartaxo (Santarém, Portugal) January 23, 1811. Marqués III of Romana and Grande of Spain.

Son of brigadier Pedro Caro Maza de Lizana, II Marqués de la Romana, studied at the Lyon Oratorio since 1771. When his father died in the expedition of Algiers, he returned to Spain in 1775, to continue his studies at the University of Salamanca and the Seminary of Nobles of Madrid. Midshipman in the Department of Cartagena in 1777 and 1779 officer. He attended Sitemap, and intake of Mahón (1782) and the blockade of Gibraltar (1783). The following year he retired to Valencia, and took a trip which took him to Paris, Berlin and Vienna. He returned to Spain in 1790, rising to captain. Made with Gravina campaign of Cape Finisterre, then returning to Cádiz. At the start of the war with the French Republic, 1793, he joined the army with the employment of Colonel, and fought under the command of his uncle Ventura Caro in Navarre and the Basque country provinces.

Man well educated and intelligent, according to Foy, thought of it that it would become a national figure the day that Spain should return to be a nation. Brigadier, 1794, went to Catalonia. Marshal field and lieutenant general, 1795. From 1796 he devoted himself to the study of Antiquities. As the French Assistant attended the Pomeranian campaign. Decided Anglophile, in 1798 intervened in some negotiations seeking a separate peace with England. Three his autograph letters, of 15 March, 1 May and 26 June 1800, addressed to Antonio fences Planell, went on the auction Durán 306, on March 11, 1996.

In 1800 he was captain general of Catalonia. This time one side about measures of health is known so that no spread of the epidemic (Barcelona, 1800). Later he was appointed Minister of war. In 1807, at the suggestion of the Ambassador of Russia, Strogonov, was given command of the expeditionary army to the North of Europe, which was going to be part of la Grande Armée. It was not the flower of the army, as he has been said, but a body formed a little lightly, between 450 and 600 gunners, who put an exotic note and took well with populations where it happened, although quarrels were frequent with the French troops. Bernadotte intimidated you so recognize José I, what he did, according to some caution, while preparing the evasion; According to Lorenzo Calvo de Rozas were its soldiers who forced him to return to Spain.

Ambrosio de la Quadra speaks of the extraordinary influence exerted on the Marquis Mayor Lázaro de las Heras, who would have conceived the policy not to make a solemn declaration of accession to the Napoleonic dynasty, but accept it through letters. 1 June 1808 directs one to the Prince de Neufchatel, since Nieborg in Funen, which welcomes you on the appointment of Murat as Lieutenant of Spain, and because it has been mastered the seditious movement in Madrid. June 14, 1808, it communicates her excitement and acceptance, on behalf of all the division, by the exaltation of José I to the throne of Spain. A story that appeared in the Gazeta de Zaragoza says that 21 of the current, or June, the Prince of Masserano presented you to the Empress in St.Cloud, which seems at least doubtful. 24 congratulates the own intruder and directs trades to its colonels to be accepted the new order of things. Shortly thereafter, in July, received the Legion of honor, on July 11, ever since Nieborg, he thanked in letter to Bernadotte (Prince of Pontecorvo). However, if we are to believe a letter appeared in the Curt, number 5, January 10, 1811, his oath was "as individuals from the army of the Spanish nation wish to live and die together with her, and believing that through its legitimate representatives, and their spontaneous and free will has done a similar oath which we requiredWe swear to the King José, the laws and the Constitution." The authors of the letter, E.C. D. G. and S., say to la Romana by lending their oath did not know the events in Spain. We know that this is not true, but it either way and in that same month of June had received an English Envoy secretly, and had begun to reconsider their situation. (Against Rozas Calvo, it also defends the anonymous pamphlet, but the work Joaquín de Osma: observations on libel published by Don Lorenzo Calvo de Rozas entitled: regulation that the Supreme central Junta gave to the Council of Regency, which resulted in a great controversy, and violent action, reflected in the apology of the sticks to the Hon.) Mr. D. Lorenzo Calvo by Lieutenant-Colonel D. Joaquín de Osma, of Gallardo, Spain, February 1811).

The flight was then conceived. In letters written in the first days of August, La Romana speaks about the critical situation in that is, with the emergence of several frigates and brigs - sent by the English - because troops want to return to Spain. "Insurrection" came, in fact, troops, as Rozas Calvo said at the time: the Marquis de la Romana, after considering how difficult their situation, accepts it, as Spanish that is, and acts accordingly. His relationship with the English Admiral Keats and Rafael Lobo, sent from Asturias, facilitates the result. The 17 August 1808 proclamation soldiers, given in Rudkiobing, invites his men to go to the salvation of the country, following the urgings of joints of Galicia and Asturias. From Denmark he moved to Gothenburg, where handed over command to the count of San Román; It followed trip to London, and arrived in La Coruña in November 11, 1808. He published a Treaty of exercise and maneuver of the infantry (Madrid, 1808).

Commander in Chief of the northern provinces, tried to fight against what he considered the Spanish anarchy. Member of the Board of Valencia, replacing the deceased Príncipe Pío, Member of the Central, his fame was great. From April 1809 sent the army of the left and the General command of old Castile, Galicia and Asturias had accumulated. On May 2, 1809 - Jovellanos regrets including the date - proceeded to dissolve forcibly the Board of Asturias, and then replace it with another named by him, described as spurious by Jovellanos, which contributed greatly to the new occupation of Asturias by the enemies. The edict of the Roman, in Oviedo on May 2, 1809, with the signing of the new vocal, was published by Jovellanos in his memory in defense of the Central Board. In June it also had problems with the defense of Corunna Board. He wrote and published representation of the... to the Supreme Central Board, also called "Roman vote" (Seville, on October 14, 1809, new edition in Valencia in 1809 and Portuguese translation, Lisbon in 1810), and Proclamação that dirigiu ao exército by occasiao of be chamado for vogal das Cortes (Lisbon, 1809).

Military Executive Committee created by the Central Board, since November 1, 1809 his voice was decisive in military matters, though he had to leave the command of troops. He took part in the formation of the Commission military Seville, fundamentally political activity, which did not prevent the surrender of the city. On 7 February 1810 takes charge again of the left army and in March of the same year, now with the rank of captain general, went to Portugal to confer with Wellington. He published a proclamation to the army in Cádiz on May 15, 1810, and in Lisbon a Handbook of voices and Proclamação do advocate herói da pátria... e aos povos Andaluzia proclamação to be levantarem against you perfidos inimigos da Europe, 1810.

A trade or Charter the General Copons, in Salvatierra on 14 August 1810, is contained in another one, Curt, number 3, August 28, 1810. A "command of the army of the left from 4 to 5 October 1810", signed by him, that celebrates the triumphs of Wellington on Massena, is published in trade journal of Cadiz, of October 18, 1810. Died at the age of 52, his body was taken to Palma de Mallorca, buried first in Santo Domingo, and then in the Cathedral in a mausoleum erected by a decree of the courts of 8 March 1811. Among other honors he had the Grand Cross of Carlos III. Its important library was inventoried to be transferred to Madrid in 1865. It was incorporated in the national library.


BOPPE, p.: Le Corps of the Roman 1807-1808. Les Espagnols to the Grande Armée. Nancy, 1898.

Concise, no. 3, August 28, 1810; and n. 5, 10 January 1811.

Mercantile Journal of Cadiz, April 5 and 18 of October 1810.

Gazeta in Zaragoza, n. 59, July 14, 1808.

MOYA and JIMENEZ, Francisco and King JOLY, Celestino: Army and Navy in the Cortes of Cadiz. Cadiz, 1913.

PAEZ RIOS, Elena: Hispanic iconography. Madrid, 1966. 5 vols.

PALAU and DULCET, Antonio: Manual of Hispanic bookseller. 2nd ed. Barcelona, 1948-1977.

QUADRA, Ambrose of the: memories of the events in the army of Denmark since the first rumors of abdication of the Crown of Spain and Bayonne Congress, until the departure of the Spanish troops of the Kingdom. Madrid, 1932.