Biography of José Miguel Carrera Verdugo (1785-1821)

José Miguel Carrera.

Chilean politician born in Santiago de Chile from October 15, 1785 and died in Mendoza (Argentina) in 1821. Son of Colonel Ignacio real militia of career and caves and Doña Francisca de Paula Verdugo Fernández de Valdivieso y Herrera, was the third of four brothers: Javiera, Juan Joséand Luis.

He studied first at the Colegio Carolino, and at age 9 joined as a cadet in the regiment of Cavalry of the Prince. In 1797 reached the grade of second lieutenant and in 1805 the Lieutenant.

By his amorous adventures in Santiago and El Monte, his father sent him to Lima in charge of an uncle. In the Peruvian capital, he/she starred in new scandals, so was arrested on the frigate Castor, where escaped to Chile.

In 1806 he/she travelled to Spain and enlisted in the army. He/She took part in the campaigns of 1808, 1809 and early 1810, in which took part in more than 20 acts of weapons; stood out especially in the occupation of the town of Mora, in the withdrawal of Consuegra, Yébenes bouts and the battles of Talavera and Ocaña, battle the latter which was wounded on 19 November 1809 and due to be transferred to Cádiz for its restoration. It was decorated with the cross of Talavera and promoted to Sergeant major of the regiment of Hussars of Galicia; charged his command and reorganization, which failed to perform because of his return to Chile on the occasion of the events that culminated with the first Governing Board of September 18, 1810. He/She befriended San Martín and participated in the Spanish war of independence.

July 25, 1811 he/she returned to Chile and on 4 September of that same year took part in the plot that led to the family Larrain Government. He/She subsequently returned to revolt, which led him to form part, as a representative of the province of Santiago, of the new Governing Board. The dissolution of the Congress in December 2, 1811 irrupted it with the representative of conception, Juan Martínez de Rozas. This confrontation was about to trigger a civil war. Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme mediation averted conflict and José Miguel Carrera was named President of the Government.

In Santiago he/she participated in September 4, 1811, in a plot that the Government clinched the Larrain family, whose members made another movement on November 15 that led him to be part of the new Governing Board, on behalf of the province of Santiago. The dissolution of the Congress, on 2 December, irrupted it with Juan Martínez de Rozas, representative of Concepción, which was on the verge of triggering civil war.

In his Government authorized, by the Decree of January 16, 1812, the installation of the press; It was named editor of the first newspaper in the country, Aurora de Chile, to Friar Camilo Henríquez; It sanctioned the first policy Constitution; He/She created the first national flag and the first coat of arms; He/She ordered the creation of schools in the monasteries and the improvement of hospitals.

In March 1813, before the landing of the brigadier Antonio Pareja, sent by the viceroy of the Peru to stifle the emancipation of Chile, assumed command of the army as General in Chief and fought in Yerbas Buenas, San Carlos, Talcahuano and the site of Chillán, where you had to withdraw for not having adequate means. The failure of the siege of this city, undertaken in the months of winter and without the right elements, and the surprise of El Roble, who put in the foreground the Colonel Bernardo O'Higgins, the Governing Board moved to replace him the command of the army; He/She was succeeded by brigadier O'Higgins in January 1814. Once given command in conception, to go to Santiago prisoner was taken by the Spaniards, but managed to escape. On 23 July 1814 he/she led a revolt that deposed Francisco de la Lastra.

Unknown as head of Government by the forces of the army who were in Talca, had to deal with a movement against her led by O'Higgins, which ended with the victory of Tres Acequias. At that moment the presence of an emissary of the new realistic head, sent by the viceroy, Colonel Mariano Osorio, joined the efforts of the Patriots; Carrera and O'Higgins joined in the defense of the country, but the lack of time to organize forces and war material shortages did they succumb in the battle of Rancagualas forces Patriots and career should migrate with the remains of the army to Mendoza

On the occasion of what happened in Rancagua, race had to leave the country and seek refuge in Mendoza (Argentina) with what was left of his army. There he/she came into conflict with the Governor, so it was taken prisoner and sent to Buenos Aires. From there he/she traveled to us.UU. looking for help for Chile. In the United States met with President James Madison and other many influential personalities. He/She managed to organize a squadron of four ships, which transported a considerable amount of weapons, ammunition and materiel, as well as a series of official volunteers. In January 1816, he/she arrived in Buenos Aires, where the Director Supreme of the provinces United of the Rio de la Plata, Juan Martín de Pueyrredón, the expedition kidnapped and imprisoned career. Once again he/she managed to escape and went to Montevideo, where he/she received the protection of the Portuguese general Carlos Federico Lecor. In Montevideo he/she met the news of the execution of their brethren in Mendoza.

In 1819, from Montevideo conducted an advertising campaign that led to the Federal State and denounced attempts to José de San Martín and Juan Martín de Pueyrredón to establish a monarchy. From these activities, he/she was expelled from Montevideo. He/She then joined the warlords of the northern provinces of Buenos Aires, which defeated the forces of Pueyrredón and installed in power to Manuel de Sarratea, which established the Federal State. The failure of the site of Buenos Aires in the month of July and the surprise of his forces by Dorrego on August 2, 1820 in San Nicolás, marked the decline of its star; later, the Treaty of Benegas, signed between López and the Governor of Buenos Aires, general Martín Rodríguez, forced him to flee to the South and take refuge with insufficient forces in the villages of the Indians of the Ranqueles, who named it Pichi King.

Two months was in the villages of the Ranqueles and at the beginning of February of 1821 began moving towards San Luis, looking for the way to Chile. Requested the Governors of Córdoba and San Luis pass and they responded by mobilizing against it. Forced to fight, he/she beat Cordoba Governor Juan Bautista Bustos, Screamer, and Colonel Luis Videla with forces of San Luis in the Cove of the fleas; it occupied the capital of the province. From San Luis, it launched a new campaign to join general Francisco Ramírez, who summoned him to take action against Buenos Aires. The campaign with Ramírez failed by the stubborn resistance which opposed Cordoba; warlords split after Cruz Alta, which could not take the entrenched camp of busts. Career withdrew to the West and returned to San Luis after defeating the forces of Mendoza, sent by Colonel Bruno Morón, in the bloody battle of Rio Cuarto. Moron died on the battlefield and the alarm reached the throne of the Supreme Director of Chile. O'Higgins, fearful of the danger posed to his Government career, sent media to strengthen its opponents. On 21 August 1821 he/she was defeated in El Médano and had to retreat to Jocolí, where he/she was betrayed by the Commander Manuel Arias and was once again arrested. Mendoza was processed by a military court condemned to death. On September 4, 1821 he/she was shot in Mendoza.

Bibliography

COLLIER, S. "Chile", in Leslie Bethell Ed., history of Latin America, Vol. 6, Barcelona, 1991.

LUCENA SALMORAL, Manuel, et al.: history of Latin America. Contemporary history, Madrid, 1988.

VILLALOBOS, S. et to the. History of Chile. Santiago, Editorial Universitaria, 1980.

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