Cuban revolutionary and politician. General Secretary of the Cuban Communist Party and President of the Council of State since 1976. He/She was born in Biran (Cuba), on August 13, 1926. He/She is the son of a rich Spanish owner, Ángel Castro Argiz, a Galician immigrant who went to Cuba to make a fortune and where he/she arrived to become a sugar planter, entering the high bourgeoisie landowner. Fidel was the result of the second marriage of his father with Lina Ruz. He/She studied at a Catholic school in Santiago de Cuba to enter after inmate at La Salle school, run by the brothers of Christian doctrine. In 1942 he/she joined the Bethlehem College de La Habana, directed by the Jesuits, where completed her pre-university studies. In 1943 he/she began law studies at the University of Havana, where he/she already began to be interested in politics.
On July 26, 1953, coinciding with the centenary of José Martí, he/she led the assault on the Moncada barracks in Santiago de Cuba. Arrested and sentenced by the courts, he/she was imprisoned until the amnesty of 1955. Already at liberty he/she went to Mexico, where he/she founded the group called July 26 to fight against the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista. In 1956, became strong in Sierra Maestra, Eastern Province, from where started, along with his brother Raúl, Camilo Cienfuegos and Che Guevara guerrilla warfare which would lead him to his triumphant in Santiago de Cuba entry on January 1, 1959 (not arrive in Havana until the 8th of the same month). Three days later did proclaim provisional President Manuel Urrutia, who appointed him head of the armed forces. In February of the same year took over the leadership of the Government. In his new position, he/she decreed the agrarian reform, nationalized companies and properties and established relations with socialist countries.
On April 17, 1961 a force of anti-Castro Cubans, financed by the CIA, tried unsuccessfully to invade the island by Bay pigs; This fact led to relations with the United States imperialist regime degenerated into open conflict that would lead him to rely, increasingly, of the Soviet Union. This year the Lenin peace prize was awarded by the Soviets.
In 1962 United States imposed harsh economic sanctions on Cuba because of the so-called missile crisis; However, he/she could not help the Castro revolution were exported to America and Africa, where he/she had great influence until 1968. The following year, Fidel Castro was named hero of the Soviet Union. In 1975, during the celebration of the I Congress of the Cuban Communist Party (which in 1965 to the United Party of Socialist Revolution), was confirmed as Secretary general of the party, and in December 1976, he/she was elected unanimously as Chairman of the Council of State, charge that, under the new Constitution, carries inherent to head of State and Government. As Chairman of the movement of non-aligned countries (1979-1981), he/she complained to the Organization of United Nations (UN) the tremendous inequalities between countries and demanded help for the poorest by the more developed, which again provide a great prestige in the third world.
In January 1980, with the new economic and political realignment in the country, reviewed, along with his brother Raúl, the ministries of Defense, Interior, health and culture, further strengthening his personal power.
In 1985 it was remodeled again the ideological and political apparatus of the country, renewing the political tables by the rise of young soldiers who have not lived the revolution and the early years of the Castro regime. After the events in the countries of the East, which ended with the withdrawal of Soviet support, Cuba has reached such levels of economic crisis which, since the end of 1991, have located the island on the verge of economic collapse. However, in July 1990, during the events commemorating the 37th anniversary of the Cuban revolution, Castro said that, despite the changes made in Eastern Europe, Cuba would never be communist. In 1991 he/she returned to defend the Cuban communism despite the desmoramiento of the schemes of the State and the difficult economic situation of his country, during the Summit of Ibero-American countries, held in the Mexican city of Guadalajara. In an attempt to give new support to the scheme has been designed in a political reform. In December 1991 the National Assembly began work to amend the Constitution, to hold direct elections. However, will remain the single party, confirmed Fidel Castro during his visit to Spain in July 1992, on the occasion of the Summit of Heads of State of Latin America. The so-called crisis of the boat people, occurred in 1994, returned to put on the table the urgent need to solve the serious economic crisis that is living in Cuba.
Among the books written by the Cuban leader: political, economic and social thinking of Fidel Castro (1958), history will absolve me, Fidel and religion and the social and economic crisis in the world (1983).
In 1976 he/she was awarded the order of the October revolution by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
The Cuban secret services claim to have recorded more than 145 attempts on the life of Castro since his coming to power.
Fidel Castro was married with Mirtha Díaz-Balat, later married a Spanish doctor that resided in Madrid, whose union was born his son Fidel, also known by Fidelito (1951). In addition, he/she has an illegitimate daughter Alina Fernández Revuelta, born in 1956 from an extramarital relationship with Nati Revuelta, a Cuban married to a cardiologist.
One of his favorite hobbies are sports. Swimmer and remarkable diver, said young in the practice of gymnastics and baseball. He/She is adept at basketball.
At the beginning of the summer of 2006 he/she was admitted in a Cuban hospital due to a severe intestinal illness. Faced with the danger that ran his life, Fidel ceded power to his brother Raúl, after 47 years of uninterrupted rule.
February 19, 2008 made public his decision to resign from the Presidency of Cuba and the post of Commander in Chief. Fidel Castro led the Cuban people in a message published in the newspaper Granma and disseminated by all means press. Castro admitted that it is not in the physical conditions appropriate to govern and that "he would betray his conscience" occupying a few responsibilities that require "mobility and total surrender", something that no longer "can offer". Also reported that to continue writing his usual reflections in the Granma newspaper, starting from now signed by "comrade Fidel" in their own words.
http://patriagrande.net/cuba/fidel.castro/; Official web site of Fidel Castro, with biographical information, speeches and iconography (in Spanish).