Biography of Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547-1616)

Poet, novelist and dramatist Spanish, born 29 September 1547 in Alcalá de Henares, and died in Madrid on April 22, 1616. It is considered the largest Spanish novelist and one of the best universal writers of all time. His teaching has been recognized by the vast majority of the later prose writers: Balzac, Dostoevsky, Galdós, García Márquez, Kundera, Torrente Ballester, Borges, etc. Dissemination achieved by Don Quixote knows no linguistic boundaries and its significance goes beyond cultures. Suffice it to refer to 'the language of Cervantes' to signify the greatness of Castilian.

Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra.

Life

Both his life and his literature have been addressed from more disparate, Orthodox and heterodox, critical approaches to be explained with hagiographic or sensationalist intentions, throwing a vast bibliographic harvest that have not yet resolved many questions and riddles. Our first author is still around an unknown in many aspects: not even know their true face, as much as we are accustomed to see his portrait - supposedly painted by Jauregui - stamped as authentic at all sites; We do not know, for certain, your date of birth, nor have any documentation concerning his personal life; either we keep handwritten autograph of any of his works, but somewhat neglected period prints; even we still have real "critical editions" of most of his creations and, ultimately, never acertaremos to delimit the powers. The only absolute truth in Cervantes is Don Quixote: the largest contribution of Spain to the Western culture.

The more reliable portrait of Miguel de Cervantes is not the brushes, but his own pen, which traced his "face and waist" in the prologue to the exemplary novels:

"East you see here of aquiline face, brown hair, forehead smooth and emptied, of bright eyes and nose curved, although well provided;" the silver beard, has not twenty years which were Golden, big whiskers, small mouth, teeth or Petite or grown, because it has but six, and those poorly equipped and worse jobs, because they have no correspondence with the other; the body between two extremes, or large, or small, the color alive, before white to brunette; something loaded on his back, and not very light feet; This I say that it is the face of the author of La Galatea and Don Quixote de la Mancha, which made the travel of Mount Parnassus, in imitation of the of César Caporal Perugian, and other works that walk by there strays and, perhaps, without the name of its owner. Commonly called Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Soldier was many years, and five and a half captive, where he/she learned to have patience in adversity. Lost in the naval battle of Lepanto left-hand a harquebus, wound which, although it looks ugly, it has beautiful, by having taken the most memorable and high time that saw the last centuries, nor expect to see the future, militating under the victorious flags of the son of war, Carlo Quinto, felice memory Ray".

So will have to accept it, no mystifications or sensationally: not very graceful physically, soldier crippled in Lepanto, captive in Algiers, and simply, author of Don Quixote.

The "commonly" called Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra was baptized, the 9 October 1547, in the parish church of Santa María la Mayor, Alcalá de Henares, which clarifies his 'hometown' and, together with your name, allows venture the 29 of September, day of San Miguel, as possible date of birth. Was Rodrigo de Cervantes and Leonor de Cortinas, the fourth son of the six that had the marriage without more possible that the office of «physician» - understood practitioner or Barber-father, clearly insufficient to sustain such heavy clearance loads, especially when the paternal grandfather, licenciado Juan de Cervantes, had marched to Cordoba, with lover and black slaveleaving abandoned his family. The economic hardships, that certainly raised our author, forced his father to undertake a vagrancy by Valladolid, Córdoba and Seville in search of better luck, never achieved, unless we know for sure if their offspring accompanied him on his travels or not. If it did, Cervantes could have learned his first letters at a College of the society of Jesus in those locations, and even have been fond of the theatre - a vocation that would not abandon never - under the tutelage of father Acevedo.

The fact is that since 1566 the surgeon was definitely established with his family in Madrid and that during those years he/she had started his literary career the young author: first, in 1567, with a sonnet dedicated to the Queen ("serene Queen, who is'), on the occasion of the birth of the infanta Catherine, the second daughter of Felipe IIthat well could be affixed in a medallion with Guzmán Getino, celebration Organizer and friend of Rodrigo; later, in 1569, with four poems of court garcilacista dedicated to the death of Isabella of Valois, third wife of Felipe II, who asked Juan López de Hoyos, rector of the study of the Villa - trying to him «dear and beloved disciple»-, for inclusion in history and relationship of the actual funeral. It may be assumed, then, that Cervantes was initiated in the literature under the auspices of the humanist and Grammarian, but we do not know the circumstances and extent of such teaching. You can only make sure that the first Cervantes vocation was poetry, never abandoned although the muses were not conducive: «me, I always work and me wakefulness / by opinion I have of poet / grace who didn't want to give me the sky», would recognize many years later, in 1614, on the journey of Mount Parnassus.

Those early poetic beginnings were truncated almost in its infancy. In late 1569, without knowing how or why, we find the young poet installed in Rome as cardinal Giulio Acquaviva, which would serve for a time to begin his military career soon. In the absence of better explanation, the transfer to Italy has been caused by an injunction of that year which ordered the imprisonment and exile, as well as the loss of the right hand, a student called Miguel de Cervantes, accused of having wounded the master builder Antonio de Sigura. Evil that weighs us, guess isn't much less disposable, unless you let us remain pending, as suggested by Canavaggio, discovered the existence of 'two Miguel de Cervantes'. In the meantime, the truth is that our author had the opportunity to become familiar with literature Italian moment, so influential in his own work.

The Pontifical environment must not please him too, because to 1570 he/she leaves him to embrace, for about five years, military career, in which neither the Fortune smile you. Supposedly, he/she enlisted first in Naples under the command of Álvaro de Sande, seating square then, certainly, in the company of Diego de Urbina, of the third of don Miguel de Moncada, under whose orders will embark in the galley Marquesa, together with his brother Rodrigo, to combat, October 7, 1571, at the naval battle of Lepanto. Certainly fought more courageously, despite the fevers that suffered at that time, from the skiff of the ship, because he/she received two arcabuzazos in the chest and one in the left hand, which would leave it unused for ever. In return, he/she would be immortalized as "The one-armed man of Lepanto" and would retain until his death the pride of having participated in «the highest chance that looked at past centuries, present, nor expect to see the upcoming» (prologue to the 1615 Quixote).

Recovered from his wounds in Messina, in 1572 he/she joined the company of don Manuel Ponce de León, the third of don Lope de Figueroa, willing to follow as a soldier, despite having a crippled hand. But, without a doubt, his military career has peaked with the recent appointment of "outstanding soldier" and, although it takes part, without penalty or glory, in several military campaigns during the following years (Navarino, Tunisia, Corfu and La Goleta), spends much of time in Messina, Sicily, Palermo and Naples winter barracks. Aware of this and weary of such a way of life, about three years later, Cervantes decides to return to Spain, not without first obtaining letters of recommendation from the Duke of Sessa and the same don Juan de Austria, recognizing her their military merits, intending to use them in court to obtain any official position. Wrong it could have imagined that, on the contrary, only they would entail you trouble.

Thus, in 1575 he/she embarks on Naples, along with his brother Rodrigo, a flotilla of four galleys departing heading to Barcelona, with such bad luck that a storm in the scattered and precisely the Sun, which traveled Cervantes and his brother, is captured, already off the Catalan coast, by some Berber Corsairs under the command of renegade Albanian Arnaut Mamí. The captives are led to Algiers and Miguel de Cervantes falls into the hands of Dali Mami, nicknamed "El Cojo", who, in view of the letters of recommendation from the prisoner, set its rescue at 500 gold crowns, quantity almost unattainable for the family of the surgeon.

Begins, so the most calamitous period of his life: long five years of captivity in the dungeons or Algerian baths, which would leave an indelible mark in the mind of the writer - normally translated in a continuous celebration of freedom-

"Freedom, Sancho, is one of the most precious gifts that men gave the heavens; with it can not match the treasures that encloses the Earth or the sea conceals; for freedom, as well as for the honour, and should venture life, and, on the contrary, captivity is the greatest evil that can come to men"(Don Quixote, II, 58).

While they would feed numerous pages of their works, from La Galatea Persiles, passing by the captive captain of the first Quixote, and not to mention the treatment of Algiers or the baths of Algiers.

However, Cervantes soon learned to have patience in adversity", and"outstanding soldier"wouldn't bend or break down easily, as we know by the information made on the captivity and the testimonies gathered in the topography and history-general of Algiers, Diego de Haedo. On the contrary, carried out up to four escape attempts, all failed, but that amply prove their courageous mettle and his nobility of spirit:

"Already in 1576 he/she flees with other Christians heading to Oran, but the Moor that guided them abandoned and had to return to Algiers.

The following year, he/she shuts himself with fourteen captives in a grotto in the garden of warden Hasán, where they remain five months that his brother Rodrigo, rescued shortly before, seek his release pending. A renegade nicknamed "El Dorador" betrays them and they are surprised at the Grotto: Cervantes pleads solely responsible, for what it's worth you being loaded crickets and taken to the dungeons of the King.

In 1578 he/she directed letters to don Martín de Córdoba, general of Oran, to send them some spy who remove them from Algiers, but moro carrying them is arrested and impaled, whereas Cervantes, the Manager, is sentenced to receive 2000 sticks, which, no doubt, never gave him.

Without relent in efforts, two years later try to assemble a frigate in Algiers to reach Spain with around 60 passengers. Again a denouncement made by the renegade white of peace, does fail the company and Cervantes, again, declares the head and surrenders to Hasan, who spares her life and imprisons him in their own bathrooms".

Certainly as "exemplary and heroic" conduct deserves all our admiration and praise, but this is no obstacle to hide the surprise that is dispensed by the Turks favour friendly our prisoner, especially when he/she walked in through Hasan low, whose cruelty we have ample evidence, willing always to pardon him and able to pay to Dali Mami 500 gold shields calling it. Reasons there are obvious to suspect a personal relationship especially between the captive and the Governor of Algiers, unless we know exactly what kind, even resorting to the sniping of white Juan de Paz. In any way we can take for granted the hypothesis, so airy recently in search of sensationalism, that Cervantes maintained homosexual relationships with Hasan, based on the second homosexual condition and its dark relationship with women. In any case, «tanto monta, monta both...».

Whatever of it, the truth is that, despite the calamities, he/she found time to write some eulogistic poems, dedicated to two companions of slavery (Bartolomeo Ruffino and Antonio Veneziano) and, if that was his, the "Epistle to Mateo Vázquez". Finally, on September 19, 1580, when Cervantes was on the verge of starting in the fleet of Hasan low towards Constantinople, the Trinitarians fray Juan Gil and fray Antón de la Bella pay the amount of the ransom and our author is released. October 27 will reach the Spanish coast and landed in Dénia (Valencia): his captivity lasted five years and one month.

Miguel de Cervantes: Epistle to Mateo Vázquez.

It is in Madrid with a ruined family and attempts to immediately use the "letters of recommendation" to get any official appointment, but fails, but a dark Mission in Oran, carried out in the middle of 1581, from where moved to Lisbon to report to Felipe II of the result. No eyebrow in their quest for any vacancy in the Indies, and in 1582, makes an appeal to Antonio de Eraso, which is denied. Their military merits would be never rewarded him.

Despite this, these are still successful and relatively happy years. With the joy of the return and the imperialist pride, Cervantes is dedicated fully to the letters. Integrates perfectly into the literary circles of the Court, maintains friendly relations with the leading poets (Laynez, Figueroa, Padilla, etc.) and is engaged in drafting the Galatea - where are listed as characters much of these authors-, which would see the light in Alcalá de Henares, in 1585. At the same time, closely follows the evolution of the theatre, accelerated by the birth of the corrals of comedies, and is steeped in the works of Argensola, cave, Virués, etc., carrying out a very fertile dramatic activity not alien to success:

"I composed at this time comedies up to twenty or thirty, that all they are recited without is to offer gift of cucumbers or else throwing; they ran his career no whistles, scream, or barahundas"(prologue to eight comedies).

Of them only kept the deal of Algiers, La Numancia and, if we accept his paternity, the newly assigned conquest of Jerusalem. Also know a contract signed in 1585 with Gaspar de Porres, referring to two missing pieces: the treatment of Constantinople and the confusing.

In the meantime, it's time for love. Through the theatrical scene, relates to Ana de Villafranca, or Anna Franca de Rojas (married to Alonso Rodríguez, who had the Union Street Tavern), who would be born, in 1584, the only descendant of our author: Isabel, eventually surname of Saavedra. Despite this, Cervantes then travels to Esquivias to meet Juana Gaitán, widow of his friend Pedro Laýnez, and try to publish his works. There he/she meets Catalina de Palacios, with whose 19-year-old daughter, Catalina de Salazar, gets married, to its thirty-eight, on 12 December of that same year. At the moment, he/she settled with his wife in Esquivias, but continuous travel will be increasing, and three years later, the husband will leave his wife to not meet with it definitively until the beginning of the 17TH.

In 1587 it appears installed in Seville, where, at the end, you get, through the mediation of Diego de Valdivia, the position of Royal Commissioner of supplies for the Spanish Armada, in the service of successive leaders of the provision of the Royal galleys: Antonio de Guevara, Miguel de Oviedo and Pedro of Isunza; years later would be responsible for raising rates arrears in Granada, having denied once again the trade in the Indies ("look for here in what is made merced») which returned to request in 1590. So miserable jobs blow away it to endure, until the end of the century, a continuous mercantilist vagrancy to the South (Ecija, La Rambla, Castro del Río, goat, Úbeda, steppe, etc.), without achieving more than trouble, excommunications, complaints and any imprisonment (Castro del Río, in 1592, and Seville), in 1597 apparently always unfair and never too long. As a counterpart, the traveller will enter in direct contact with the people's walk, and even with low funds, acquiring a human experience, masterfully recreated in his works.

Miguel de Cervantes. National Library.

So long administrative, full of troubles, departs it from the literary work: "I had other things that occupy me, I left the pen and comedies» (prologue to eight comedies), but only relatively. The writer stays active: as a poet, still singing some of the hottest events (odes to the failure of the invincible, sonnet to the plundering of Cadiz or «the túmulo de Felipe II"and numerous loose compositions appeared in works by other authors); as a dramatist, is committed in 1592 with Rodrigo Osorio to give six comedies, that would not charge if they were not of the best, among them have counted several of those included in the volume of 1615; as a novelist, writes several short novels (the captive, Rinconete and Cortadillo, the jealous Extremaduran, etc.) and, more importantly, nothing less than the first part of Don Quixote outlines and, perhaps, the beginning of the Persiles. This explains its incredible fruitfulness publishing in the last years of his life. With the beginning of the century, Cervantes bids farewell to Sevilla and we only know of it walking dedicated fully to Don Quixote, probably spurred on by the success achieved by Mateo Alemán with the first part of the Guzmán de Alfarache (1599). The fact is that in 1603 marriage Cervantes moved to Valladolid, new headquarters of the Court with Felipe III, in the suburb of the trace of the Rams, along with the resurrection hospital, surrounded by female relatives: her sisters Andrea and Magdalena, his niece Constance, daughter of the first, his own daughter Isabel and, in addition, a maidMaría Ceballos. All were well experienced in unhappy love affairs, though duly charged, with the men. It is just that the writer, without a job or benefit, refugiase to the arrimo of their relatives, but that does not authorize to speak of gineceos or carnal Commerce, as lately it comes running.

Miguel de Cervantes. "At the tomb of the King Felipe II in Seville".

Cover of "Don Quijote de La Mancha". Ed. 1605.

Early in 1605, in a manner somewhat hasty, sees the light the ingenious hidalgo don Quixote of la Mancha, in the Madrid press of Juan de la Cuesta, at the expense of Francisco Robles, with immediate success and several pirated editions, so Juan de la Cuesta starts the Second Edition shortly. But the joy of success would be troubled at once by a new and brief imprisonment, now sediciosamente ordered by the Mayor Villarroel, motivated by the murder of Gaspar de Ezpeleta at the gates of Cervantes, in which process the family is accused of leading life licentious ("Las Cervantas").

After the Court, Cervantes moved to Madrid in 1606, where then will be installed in the neighborhood of Atocha. There is still a lot of literature for publishing, but age starts to not be already «to mock with another life» (prologue to the exemplary novels). He/She is exclusively dedicated to writing and soon joined the Congregation of the slaves of the Santísimo Sacramento del Olivar, while death is primed in its relatives: Andrea, Magdalena and Isabel Sanz, her granddaughter, died around 1609. Just try, in 1610, accompanied the count de Lemos to Naples, but leaves Lupercio Leonardo de Argensola, responsible for recruiting the procession out, as well as Gongora. Only remains the final stretch: a couple of changes, first to the Huertas Street and then to the Franks, assistance to the academies of fashion, as by the count of Saldaña, at Atocha, and income in the third order of San Francisco.

Casa de Miguel de Cervantes. Madrid.

Based on his reputation as a novelist, focusing patiently in his office of writer and will drafting much of his literary production, taking advantage of titles and old projects. After eight years of publishing silence since the publication of the novel which immortalised him, published a true literary avalanche: novels copies (1613), travel of the Parnaso (1614), eight comedies and eight new starters never represented (1615) and second part of the ingenious gentleman don Quixote of la Mancha (the same year). The list would be closed, posthumously, with the emergence, managed by Catherine, of the works of Persiles and Sigismunda, historia setentrional (1617).

But Cervantes was critically ill with dropsy and in 1616, their days already played to an end: April 18 received the last sacraments; the 19 words, «already put the foot in the stirrup», his last writing: the overwhelming dedication of the Persiles; 22, just over one week after Shakespeare, the author of Don Quixote dies and is buried the next day, with the Franciscan sayal, in the convent of las Trinitarias Descalzas of current calle de Lope de Vega. His mortal remains were lost, but «dejonos tired comfort memory» and its literature.

Signing of Miguel de Cervantes.

Work.

Without worries of polygraph, Miguel de Cervantes wrote three major literary genres - poetry, theatre and novel - with the same determination, but with well different results. Literary history has always respected the evaluation being conducted by his contemporaries: was disparaged as a poet, questioned as a dramatist and admired as a novelist.

Poetry.

Cervantine poetic production occupies considerable space in the whole of his work, is disseminated far and wide from his writings and runs his biography from his literary beginnings to the Persiles. It responds to a profound vocation, grown uninterruptedly, although not always with the necessary inspiration, as made clear the poet himself in the journey of Parnassus:

"I always work and I desvelopor seem I have poetala grace who didn't want to give me the sky".

Leaving aside the poems included in the major works, where there is no shortage occasional achievements, is made up of numerous loose compositions, usually of circumstances (Memorial, funeral, laudatory or satirico-burlescas), and by a long menipeo poem with auto biographical profiles: the journey of Parnassus.

The loose poems begin with five pieces, of garcilasista Court, dedicated to Isabella of Valois: a sonnet (1567) laudatory for the birth of his daughter Catherine ('serene Queen, who is'), and of his death four commemorative poems, published by López de Hoyos in 1569, notably a long Elegy («who will be my song painful»). Two correspond to the years of captivity eulogistic, non lacking ability sonnets dedicated to Bartolomeo Ruffino Italian di Chiambery ("Oh how clear signs have given!») and Antonio Veneziano ('Yes, thus as of our evil sing'), and the celebrated"Epistle to Mateo Vázquez"(«if the bass are the zampoña mia»), in triplets chained logradisimos, although its attribution is not clear. After his return, the poet does not escatimaría never eulogistic poems dedicated to the works of his friends (Juan Rufo López Maldonado, Alonso de Barros, Pedro Padilla... and even to Lope de Vega), which do not offer higher interest. More successful are the two songs dedicated to the invincible (1588), still infused with imperialism (fast fame, lend wings «bat» and «Mother of the brave men of war»), and finish pastoral romance of "Jealousy" ("where the sun goes down"). The jewels of this set are represented by two sonnets of historical background and burlesque tone: one ("we saw in July another Easter») dedicated to ridicule the entry of Spanish troops in Cádiz in 1596, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, when already had withdrawn the English, after having plundered the city during 24 days; other («vote God that frightens me this greatness»), reputed by Cervantes as «main honour of my writings», no less irreverent, intended to put into question the Majesty of the mound raised in Seville in 1598 on the occasion of the death of Felipe II (a "Daredevil" there present reacts so: «this heard a daredevil and said:-true / what family!»), soldier Lord, / and who says otherwise lies! («/ And then encontinente / Caló the mowing, required the sword, / he/she looked at the sideways, it was, and there was nothing ').

The journey of the Parnaso (1614) is the only extensive narrative poem of Cervantes. Made in the image and likeness of the Viaggio di Parnaso (c. 1578), Cesare Caporali di Perugia, as the author himself says, enrolling in the menippean satirico-alegorica tradition of classical, medieval, and Erasmus ascendancy. Autobiograficamente, recounts in eight chapters, a fantastic trip to mount Parnassus, on Board of a galley commanded by mercury, undertaken by many poets good in order to defend it against the poetasters. Gathered there with Apollo, emerging victorious from the battle and the protagonist magically returns to his abode. The adventure is completed with the "Assistant to el Parnaso", where Roncesvalles Pancracio delivered to Miguel two letters of Apollo that the addendum is closed. Really, the allegorical journey is filled with the enumeration and evaluation of some hundred thirty poets, as it had done in the «song of Caliope» La Galatea, while the "attached" includes some 'Ordinances' to quevedesco mode against the poets.

The important thing is to note, on the one hand, that the first person responds to a clearly pseudoautobiografico approach, imbued with evocations of related to the life of its author, thanks to which the trip ends become a true testament literary and spiritual; on the other hand, that the poem unfolds, as mature, best Cervantes literary resources work: humor, irony, perspectivism, etc.

Theatre.

"Comedies and tragedies.

Also the theatre was cultivated by Miguel de Cervantes with assiduity and vocational commitment: 'boy since I was fond of the cover, and in my boyhood eyes are going after entertainers' (Don Quixote, II, 11). He/She is dedicated to it since its inception literary, after return from the captivity, until his later years, so the chronology of his pieces ranges from early 1980s until 1615, leaving few inactive periods. However, most scholars tend to group creations in two or three times, separated by the Andalusian as collector stage and by the years dedicated to the publication of the first Quixote. Really it's a permanent occupation, always turns with entrepreneurs and booksellers, which can only be assured the different received acceptance: If at the beginning was applauded and crowned by success (La Numancia and the treatment of Algiers, at least), at the end would be rejected and confined to printing (eight comedies and eight hors d'oeuvres). At least, so own playwright tells it:

"They were in the theaters of Madrid represent the dealings of Algiers, which I composed; The destruction of Numancia and the naval battle [...]; I composed at this time comedies up to twenty or thirty, that all they are recited without is to offer gift of cucumbers or else throwing; they ran his career no whistles, scream, or barahundas. I had other things that occupy me; I left the pen and the comedies, and then entered the monster of nature and the great Lope de Vega, was the comic monarchy [...]. Few years has that I went back to my old idleness, and, thinking that they even lasted centuries where they ran my praise, I returned to composing some comedies, but I found no birds in nests of yesteryear; I want to say that I have not found author who asked them to me [...]. In this season I said a bookseller that he/she buy them me if an author's title had not told that cho mu could be expected of my prose, but that verse, nothing [...]. Aburrime and vendiselas to such bookseller, who has put them in the picture as here offers them (prologue to eight comedies) "."

Unfortunately, those glorious times only the two previously mentioned titles have been preserved us, and if it is yours, the conquest of Jerusalem, recently discovered and attributed to Cervantes. You have to resort to contracts with Porres and Osorio and other passages of the author to expand so-called title list, today lost: the treatment of Constantinople and death of Selim, the confused, the great turquesca, the naval battle, the Jerusalem, La Amaranta or on may, loving forest, the unique, the bizarre Arsinda and deception in the eyes. Of course, that it is possible that some are gentrified in the 1615 volume. But do not add the twenty or the thirty, United to eight printed and hors d'oeuvres, give a clear idea of the attention given to the genre by Cervantes.

At the same time, the criticism usually associated this periodization to a mandatory path which would evolve from the attachment to the classical rules, as they themselves and defend themselves in Don Quixote (I, 48), until the acceptance of the new art imposed by Lope de Vega, as it seems to be recognized at the beginning of the second day of el Rufián dichoso. To contrast, or classic or novel, Cervantes addressed Theatre always with cares of renovation artistic, reaching boast innovations introduced by himself,

"I dared to reduce comedies to three days, five who had; I showed, or, to be more precise, it was the first that represented the imaginations and thoughts hidden from the soul, bringing moral figures Theatre, with general and happy applause from listeners"(prologue to eight comedies).

and it has never before closure of the precepts of 1980s, nor to the aesthetic arbitrariness of the new times. Accepted in the ruffian licenses are explained by generic needs: "a [day] of his free life, / another of his serious life, / another of your holy death / and his great miracles» (vv. 1293-96).

The result would be a set of experimental, always different and unique, attentive dives with a formula capable of competing with the new comedy. The great novelist couldn't end never do it, but yes bequeathed us a series of pieces, a somewhat heterogeneous, tragedy, tragicomedy and comedy; and within the last, of captives, of Saints, chivalrous, swashbuckling, etc.

In order of seniority, open the series the two loose pieces represented in the first period. The oldest, the treatment of Algiers, is a tragicomedy of captives in historical and folkloric undertones («transcript / life in Algiers and ugly treatment», VV. 2534-35), autobiographical stamp, which is animated by the double love intrigue of Aurelio-Silvia e Yzuf-Zahara. Much more relevant is the tragedy of Numancia, perhaps the best of the genre in those years, where (Apianno, moral, Valera) historical sources on the fence is pickled with literary motifs (Pharsalia, labyrinth of fortune, Araucana) and enrich themselves already with fictitious individual experiences (mother and children, couple in love, two friends), already with projections allegorical like the Douro or Spain. Thus, the theme of freedom defended at all costs comes out on stage in a multitude of episodes dealing with it at different scales: individual, community, national and universal, but always heroically. That has been so contested in comparable political situations.

Uncertain chronology aside, the volume of eight comedies is presided over by the gallardo Spanish, another comedy of captives ' whose main intent / has been mixing truths / fabulous attempts» (vv. 3132-34); i.e.: don Martín de Córdoba in Oran and Mazalquivir resistance, against the Moorish siege, with amorous entanglements led by Alimu zel-Arlaja and don Fernando-Margarita. Don Fernando will serve as thread mix, somewhat romantic, which highlights the comedy of Buitrago. House of jealousy and Ardenia - perhaps recasting of the loving forest - forests, nothing but awkward foray, without greater merit than his complicated props, in the chivalric and pastoral world, whose motives more topics are represented in stages alegorico-mitologicos, populated by Reinaldos, rustic, Merlin, Cupid or Castile. The baths of Algiers are extracted from the historic quarry: «not of imagination / got this treatment, / that forged it the truth / well away from fiction» (vv. 3082 - 85), as it was the case in the treatment of Algiers, which depend directly on. But now the distance has allowed to focus on the aesthetic, attending bookish models, to draw a dynamic action and quite entertaining. El rufián dichoso stands out as unique cervantine incursion in the comedy of santos and by the theoretical interval (vv. 1208-1312) who opens the day II, intended to justify the alteration of units imposed by the hagiographic matter: the conversion of a young Sevillian ruffian which ends as prior at a convent in Mexico and is buried in the odor of sanctity. Relying on cronisticas sources, Cervantes manages to avoid the implausibility and perfectly staggered the evolution inside the character in three days. The first, in the Seville Rinconete y Cortadillo and with the people of the ruffian widower, stand out against the other two by its freshness, its truth and its linguistic richness. The gran sultana, Doña Catalina de Oviedo, perhaps reworking of the big Turquesca, brings us back to the oriental atmosphere of bondage to focus on the almost bufo infatuation that Grand Turk taxed to Catalina de Oviedo: ready to get married, leaving her to follow their faith. Comic parody is enriched with literary motifs, such as entanglements between Clara and Lambert, and the careful preparation of Madrigal, almost a 'funny' to the new comedy mode. The labyrinth of love could also be understood as adaptation of an early work: the unclear, reputed by Cervantes as "good between the best» within «comedies of swashbuckling» ("attached to the journey of Parnassus"). Despite this, nothing but stage «nonsense» and «tangles"(vv. 3076-77) of chivalric love, certainly organized in labyrinthine confusion: Dagoberto-Rosamira, Manfredo-Julia and Anastasio-Portia, starring three intrigues, situated in the same plane, while none operate as organizing main action set. Much more interesting is the fun, swashbuckling, intended as a parody of the topics of the new art: «just without marriage / entertaining comedy» (vv. 3086-87). With that goal, all the intrigue depends on deception as a central axis, around which produced a series of variants: the ambiguity of Marcela, believed to be beloved by his own brother, and don Ambrosio, which confuses the recipient of his passion; the imposture of Cardenio, which usurps the personality of don Silvestre de Almendárez, with such winning Marcela, and fold of Cristina, which simultaneously encourages Ocaña, torrent and Quinones. Finally, Pedro de Urdemalas closes the volume because, in addition to questioning the formula of Lope de Vega, exceeds its conventions: «Destas quite guff and other such / offered free and loose comedy» (3177-78). Indeed, there are no pairs of lovers or servants in the service of conventional sets that usually end up in wedding ("and see that does not end in marriage," v. 3169), but a central with sufficient skills tracista to harmonize folk character an endless multiform episodes: consultations initials in entremesil altarpiece, life of Gypsies, vital vicissitudes of Belica, feast of San Juan, final, etc. Here is the best Cervantes, capable even of marinate their most diverse literary experiences, offering echoes of La Gitanilla, the Colloquium of dogs, sanchopancescos trials at Barataria of Quixote, careful guard, the election of the mayors of Daganzo, etc.

miguel de Cervantes, the widower ruffian named lent (hors d'oeuvre).

Miguel de Cervantes. "Pedro de Urdemalas".

miguel de Cervantes, careful guardian (hors d'oeuvre).

Hors d'oeuvres.

Separate chapter deserve eight hors-d'oeuvres, although they were not represented. «Rules» aside, Cervantes discusses them in absolute freedom, both formal and ideological, displaying his creative genius to offer authentic scenic treasures, whose artistic quality no one has spared them entirely. Achieved eight «comic toys», by always ridiculous rates (bobos, ruffians, Biscay, students, soldiers, us, etc.) and based on conventional situations, but enriched and dignified with the finest of his creative genius (irony, vida-literatura, apariencia-realidad...), so leave empowered to achieve masterful levels of unlimited transcendence. Between teasing and really, with inherent to the bufo box permissiveness, the one-armed man of Lepanto remains put into question the more solid foundations of Golden mentality.

Thus, the marital relationship is addressed from multiple perspectives always laughable, but without forgetting its darker side: four ridiculous couples parade before the divorce judge, without getting clearance, despite the fact that their marriages are real hell, by that ' better the worst concert / that not the best divorce»; Lent is buffoonish boss lamentations, due to his widow, the widower ruffian, which is used to give life to the quevedesco character of Escarraman («already came out of the gurapas / the brave Escarraman»); a ragged soldier and a bobo sota-sacristan want to marry a little, offering him ridiculous present in careful guard, which is offered as a hilarious parody of the old cliché of arms and letters; but, curiously, Cristina chooses to the sacristan for economic reasons («already not estimated value, / because it is estimated the money»), while the soldier is: «only in old age, / and is without a room / because it has left its third»; The cave of Salamanca is handled as uniquely folk ideal to give life to a tracista student chicaneries and a «sacridiablo» against the poor Pancrazio, archetype of the horned and happy traditional; Finally, the malice of a neighbor allows the cruel mockery that is made to Canizares in the jealous old when, victim of his jealousy, as the jealous Extremaduran, serves behind the door to the adultery of his wife Lorenza ("If you knew what galan has brought me good luck! («Waiter, well arranged, pelinegro, and smelling the mouth a thousand blossoms "). Safer from this point of view, Vizcaíno fingido transcends linguistic uncouth type thanks to offer an elaboradísimo scam from the scenic point of view.

In another order of things, after the ridiculous defense that make his merits, none of the candidates (Berrocal, Humillos, Hock and frog) obtains the rod in the election of the mayors of Daganzo, because this is interrupted by the appearance of a sotasacristan who has just tossed; Add two details to the open outcome: Pedro de la Rana holds an exemplary program, where they denounced the arbitrariness of Justice («my rod would not be so thin / as used in ordinary»), and is the ecclesiastical arm which interfere in the Government of the «Republic» («who gets you / you in reprehender justice?») («/ Have you govern the Republic? '). And all along this road, to reach the final with the altarpiece of Wonderland, which stands as the undisputed centerpiece of the series for both aesthetic and ideological interest: the largest of the mainstays of the Baroque society, the purity of blood, or if you prefer, the condition of old Christian, is cast by Earth, and still boils down to nothing, when it depends on contemplation («which none can see the things listed in the [altar], have some race of self-confessed») of a great altarpiece, manufactured by the Sage Tontonelo, where there is more spectacle than that represented by the spectators, victims stupid its casticistas prejudices, but they nonetheless cancel the limits between reality and fictionabout everything when confuse a Furrier with a puppet ("says mayor that what instructs her Majesty the Tontonelo Sage sends him").

Narrative.

If in poetic and theatrical matters its merits are questionable, when the novel is, Miguel de Cervantes is considered, simply, as the creator of the modern novel. In this genre, without limit by the poetic, he/she would find enough space to capture its complex vision of things, hitting fully in the elaboration of a Masterful literary formula, already recognized by his contemporaries, and admired by the best universal novelists of all time. It cuajarían its more grandiose titles: following the granting to pastoral fashion of La Galatea (1585), the ingenious hidalgo (1605), the Novelas ejemplares (1613), the second part of ingenious Knight (1615) and, posthumously, the history of the works of Persiles and Sigismunda (1617). The great writer had found, at last, his intellectual and, aware of this arrangement, renewed all the narrative genres of his time (chivalrous, pastoral, Byzantine, picaresque, courtesan), daring, even, to "compete with heliodor", Greek novelist par excellence.

To carry out as ambitious company did not have more guide than his creative genius, because the novel was meant by then Italian, as short story, and was theoretically contemplated in the rhetoric. Used fictional formula must go to fetch her to his own works, and nothing but a few keys that have been cleverly systematized by Riley: poetic realism of the facts, admiration of cases, likelihood of exemplary moral, linguistic propriety, approaches, etc. They are the same principles, on the other hand, that govern the rest of their creations, always located in this magical strip that is halfway between life and literature, truth and fiction, morality and freedom... Without more resources, Cervantes invents a fascinating realism, named by Blanco Aguinaga as «prismatic», where only safeguarding the perspectivism and the freedom of approach of who speaks, for greater amazement and conviction that they hear.

The Galatea.

The Galatea responds already to that creative universe, though, work first, it offered only in outline. In good measure, represents a concession to the genre of fashion, the 'records of shepherds' López Estrada, called when the newly rescued, he/she rubs elbows with the literary scene of the 1980s, delves into literature willing to publish his first book. In the classical bucolic, with Theocritus and Virgil to the head line, passing through the Renaissance eclogues, and behind the Arcadia of Sannazaro, the genre had reached great success in Spanish thanks to novels of Montemayor (La Diana, 1559), Gil Polo (La Diana enamorada, 1564) or Gálvez de Montalvo (the pastor of Filida, 1582). Cervantes enters it, desire and enthusiasm, to offer us only the first part of a story that never would continue, although it did not announce the second part (well, in the prologues of eight comedies and Don Quixote II), even from the deathbed (dedication to the Persiles). What yes I would do is to occasionally return to the pastoral world in several passages of the Quixote (Chrysostom and Marcela, I, 11-14, or "Feigned Arcadia", II, 58), whose main character would die with the desire to become pastor Quijotiz, in the House of jealousy or at the Colloquium of the dogs.

The entire novel revolves around Pastor Galatea, of whose beauty and honesty are in love two friends, Elicio and Erastro, while none of them pass express his admiration throughout the entire work, until, at the end, his father decides to marry her with a Portuguese and the most-favoured Elicio, shown willing to stop it by force. That argument, static and antinovelesco where they exist, is filled with a multitude of adventures incorporated the many characters that are coming to the bucolic scenery, each of which recounts his life Peripeteia (Lisandro-Leonida, Artidoro-Teolinda, Timbrio-Nisida). In addition, complete with a long philosophical debate about love, maintained by Tirsi and represent (IV), where is air of Renaissance humanism prevailing philosophy of love, and the «song of Caliope» (VI), kind of updated census of Spanish poets distributed by regions (Castile, Andalusia, Aragon, Valencia, etc.). Of course, the whole enlarges and adorned with «Songbook», cutting sharply garcilacista and petrarquista, which constitute nearly ninety poetic compositions recited by the characters, and the eclogue included in Book III.

Obviously, Cervantes conforms largely to ideological and compositional patterns more typical of the genre:

(a) recreates the idyllic locus inherent in Pastoral Ministry, here located on the banks of the Tagus, where reigns a neoplatonic conception of love (love, beauty, Dios) and petrarquista (feeling, contrasts), dependent of the treaties of León Hebreo (dialogues of love) and Pietro Bembo (Los Asolanos).

(b) practice your «password» historical, facilitating the real ID of several characters, among which is: Francisco de Figueroa (Tirsi), Pedro Laínez (Damon), Cervantes (Lauso), Diego Hurtado de Mendoza (Melissus), Luis Gálvez de Montalvo (Siralvo), Mateo Vázquez (Larsileo), don Juan de Austria (Astraliano) and Felipe II («more rabadan»).

(c) focus the story on a central stage, always occupied by the protagonists (Galatea-Elicio), which will be entering and exiting the secondary characters with the respective stories.

(d) conceived the novel from an approach capable of accommodating philosophical disquisitions, whole eclogues, poetic song books and chapters of literary history, miscellaneous.

(e) it uses sharply cult language.

But Cervantes would carry forever the reins of the novel, and already from the very beginning addressed the genre with an air of novelty, without adhere to 100% to its traditional configuration: that conventional and idyllic world is troubled, at the very beginning, by the tenderizing of love, held by Lisandro, inaugurating a long series of betrayals, revenge and murder a bit strange in the idyllic setting; at the same time, the final decision of the father of Galatea it married a Portuguese adds a political projection of opposition to the Government of Felipe II, improper of the pastoral.

Thus, in its miscellaneous configuration, La Galatea tries already the problem life/literature, but with failed result; in the words of Avalle-Arce: ' there is too much literature to be this life, and an excess of life away from the idealism of the genus». It is no surprising that the author, when the scrutiny of Don Quixote (I, 6) saved her from the fire only temporarily:

"Your book has some good invention; It proposes something, and not conclude anything: needed to wait for the second part promises; Perhaps with the phraseology you'll reach all the mercy which is now denied".

Many years later, Berganza almost burn it to parody their lack of realism in the Symposium of the dogs.

Don Quixote.

Doré engraving: "Don Quixote confuses the blades of windmills spinning by giants who move the arms" (book I).

Cervantes masterpiece and one of the most impressive creations of the human spirit. It is a perfect caricature of chivalric literature, and its two main characters, Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, embody the two types of the Spanish soul, the idealist and dreamer, who forgets the needs of material life for running in pursuit of inaccessible chimeras, and the positivist and practical, although quite fatalistic. This prized jewel of the Spanish literature has been able to conquer the whole world, and perhaps, is with the Bible, the book that has been translated into more languages, becoming his characters, true Archetypes of universal category.

(See Don Quixote).

Cover of Don Quixote of La Mancha. Ed. 1605.

The exemplary novels.

«Twelve stories"included in the volume of the Novelas ejemplares of 1613 collected a narrative task that starts very backward; at least some of them, Rinconete and Cortadillo and the jealous Extremaduran, were already written to 1600. But the Cervantes which gathers them, retouch and complete, four years before his death, is already the author of Don Quixote. Insurance of his stature as a prose writer of creation, displays in them a novel sampling of diverse cultures that offers - not without fanfare - with an air of scoop from his Prologue: 'I am the first that I have fictionalized in the Castilian language, which many novels that are printed all are translations from foreign languages, and these are my own«, not imitated or pilfered: my wit he/she engendered them, and my pen gave birth to them». In addition, seem designed with a marked spirit of exemplariness: "and even if you look at it, there is no who, not some helpful examples can be drawn". Perhaps the same as Don Quixote was concerned only of "twelve exemplary tales", a simple parody of books of chivalry; but, coming out of the pen of the mature Cervantes, the complications are many.

The volume includes, in fact, twelve titles (La Gitanilla, liberal lover, Rinconete y Cortadillo, English Spanish, El licenciado Vidriera, the force of the blood, the celoso estremeño, illustrious MOP, the two maidens, La Señora Cornelia, the deceitful marriage and dogs Cipion and Berganza), but the last one is set in the former inextricably: the Symposium is inserted as reading conducted by one of the characters in the marriage, so that it closes once finished one. Actually it's eleven novels, which are offered as twelve to square the number and possibly to give verisimilitude to the game of mirrors perspectivistico achieved with in crimping: Mr. Peralta lee, from the marriage, the transcript made by a syphilitic Ensign of the conversation by two dogs, Cipion and Berganza, overnight (colloquium) while he/she was convalescing in a hospital. Gives the dogs like they speak or not: miraculously, fiction has become literary truth in reading. The twelve title is the last novelita, but the volume closes with eleven.

Eleven or twelve, the fact is that the included titles are intended as generic sampling within the Italian tradition of the short story. It recreates its pages and moves magazine to almost all of the current modalities: Byzantine, picaresque, gnomica, courtesan, lucianesque, etc. Apparently, they are independent, written accounts regardless of the collection, which are often classified by their idealistic or realistic, approach their topics (love, marriage, picaresque) or by their language more or less worship, when they will not arbitrate mathematical distributions bordering on incoherence. However, the novels seem to be presided over by an implicit framework that sets multiple interrelations (Symmetries and contrasts and variations) including, whether linguistic, environmental, thematic, generic etc. All of them will be recapituladas at the Colloquium of the dogs, which echoes of La Gitanilla, the Rinconete, the illustrious, etc., come to make us return to «tricks table» involving the collection and its complex maze-like organization.

Thus distributed, twelve stories respond to the pattern of the Italian novella, recreated here with worries of real literary renewal. Of as a result, the short genre comes out enriched and dignified, therefore no dodge the morally compromising situations that were her own, raised and always meet of «exemplary». It is an exemplary - and therein lies touchstone of the volume - a rather peculiar: attend all sorts of deceit, betrayal, rape and immoral acts in general, which directly threaten the established at the time and moral, of course, against the purpose of literature set in Trento. We must call it, if we want to understand it, simply «Cervantes»: ambiguous, ironic and eutrapelica, from a moral point of view; admirable and plausible, from an aesthetic approach. Nothing is what at first glance seems, and everything can end up being what we think, but we will always be left amazed by the extraordinary examples and convinced by the credibility of the approaches. Twelve tales offer, first and foremost, an exemplary aesthetic, literary and fictional, masterfully prepared from Cervantes ethics:

La Gitanilla combines the noble world with the Gypsies from the unprecedented case has happened to its protagonist Preciosa: of noble origin, is kidnapped as a child and raised among Gypsies until its grace and beauty, "unique and alone," cause to love it her don Juan de Cárcamo, arriving to be Gypsy (Andrés Caballero) as proof of his love. Sincere and pure love of young people is taking, between thefts and freedoms of Gypsies, until one discovers the truth and two nobles are happily married. True love, oblivious to conveniences and appetites, is beyond noble codes and Gypsy behaviors: stands as the only truth.

The liberal lover sublimates otherwise loving, starring Ricardo and Leonisa, now in a captive environment and with a Byzantine network: after the adventures, seizures, and couples cross the gender required lover shows his generosity offering his entire fortune to rescue the loved one, then offered liberally to Cornelius, the official promised. The greatness of the behavior of Ricardo causes that Leonisa is delivered you, beyond Convention, unconditionally as a wife.

Rinconete y Cortadillo, here in version retouched from the text Porras de la Cámara, represents the first attack in the collection on the poetics of the picaresque genre, become fashionable by the Guide, the Guzmán or the Buscón: opposite derivative of vile origin determinism and the dogma imposed by the unique point of view, Cervantes opts for the festive dialogue by two picaruelosRincón and Cortado, in sales and ways to integrate into the world of the Sevillian underworld. The picaresque pessimism is supplanted by the camaraderie of two tenement that ends in hors d'oeuvres when integrated into the brotherhood of Monipodio: a congregation, pious, and criminal thugs that captivates by its Ordinances, memorials and linguistic registers of germania.

The English Spanish takes up the love affair, in terms no less admirable than previous ones, to develop it in a sentimental climate typical of the Byzantine narrative: Recaredo shows the greatness of his love for Isabela fighting bravely against the Turks, accepting her even after the physical strain that produces you a poisoning caused by the mother of Arnesto, a jilted lover. As a result, ends marrying the young man, now back to its original beauty, when it is about to become a nun. Again, sincere love triumphs surprisingly, between different adventures, intrigue and pettiness.

Licenciado Vidriera involves one of the most surprising and paradoxical "examples": after graduating in Salamanca, Tomás Rodaja is poisoned by a prostitute, which causes that you lose the reason and comes to believe glass («window»), dedicating himself to tell truths who stumbles, until recovers it and ends, already become Tomás Rueda, as a soldier in Flanders. On the one hand, Cervantes exploiting the issue of madness with the refinement of the Quixote, taking advantage of it to foist a multitude of such sharp, not devoid of poignancy; on the other, he/she faces weapons and letters, rely on the first output who fails, and sane, in second, despite having been applauded when crazy.

The force of the blood ends up marrying a seductive noble, Rodolfo, with the young hidalga Leocadia, which had violated, all because the grandfather recognizes the grandson born of the union when it is inadvertently wounded. The approach is conventional where they exist, as the final marriage restores the shame suffered by the young, but no longer neatly cervantino: Rodolfo does not accept marriage for reasons moral, but prompted by the lust aroused by the beauty of the young in it.

The jealous Extremaduran, in the subject line of the impertinent curious and jealous old, makes to pay the Indian old Carrizales the serious consequences of its meanness: covered in its richness and gripped by jealousy, submits to his young wife to a real imprisonment in its floor, which does not prevent the young Loaysa to achieve access to their bedding causing an annoyance of death to the geezer. The funny thing is that, at least in the final drafting, adultery even is consummated, Leonora achieved opposing offender to exhaustion: both fall asleep. On the other hand, Cervantes enriches the subject of the viejo-nina relationship with many symbolic references of Biblical, mythological and Muslim descent, projected it to a universal dimension.

Illustrious MOP, in the image and likeness of La Gitanilla, focuses on the unprecedented case occurred a girl of noble origin, raised in the lower depths of an Inn: admired for its beauty and reputation, a young nobleman, Avendano, is installed as a servant, with his friend Carriazo, at the Inn in order to be able to express their true love still considering it MOP; After the anagnorisis of rigor, everything ends happily in wedding. Again, Cervantes manages to develop a love pure and great story plausible in a markedly picaresque atmosphere that brings, the handheld Lope Asturiano, good number of adjacent anecdotes.

Two damsels and La Señora Cornelia participate in the same comediesco and courteous approach «of swashbuckling»: the first, with Byzantine borders, concerned the adventures of two women, Feodosiya and Leocadia, deceived by the same man, Marco Antonio; Although the outcome will go through the usual marriage, the novelita is conceived as a real "question of love". The second is defined in the text as "tragic comedy": thanks to the generous help of two Spanish students, a young single mother, Cornelia, manages to marry the father of her son, who turns out to be the Duke of Ferrara.

The deceitful marriage, as already anticipated, masterfully closes volume, thanks to the Colloquium of the dogs, which is framed in her womb: Second Lieutenant Campuzano has a Bachelor Peralta how, stuck to a supposedly rich Lady burlador, da with a harpy who leaves him fingers and infected syphilis, allowing you to listen to, while it convalece, the Colloquium held by two dogs. Allows us to attend reading making it the Bachelor: Cipion and Berganza, possible men become dogs at birth by a witch, are endowed with the gift of speech overnight that leverage to Berganza's account of his life, in line with interventions and even counter-claims of Cipion. The set involves one major experimental pawns of the Cervantes novelist, at the same time it is one of his more finished achievements, because it ends up being a truly exemplary built metanovela: what actually comes is reading that a degree makes a folder copied by a convalescent Ensign, which contains the conversation by two dogs born a witch; There is no more complex or more brilliant game of mirrors: under those coordinates, everything is absolutely possible, to the point that history and nonsense merge in full harmony. But, most stunning still, Berganza life closely follows the canons of the «picaresque novel», here invalidated and transcended in the dialogistico development of two voices, one of which is used to trim the digressive deviations specific to that. As a result, the Symposium may penetrate into pastoral, criminal, marginal environments... to rise up as a true "human comedy": the more realistic and, at the same time, the more crazy.

The Persiles.

Although published posthumously (1617), the works of Persiles and Sigismunda could well be fictional company started by Cervantes in the last decade of the 16th. In any case, the novel closes on the deathbed, "already put the foot in the stirrup, / with the anxieties of death» (dedication), which means that it is finished by who is known and self-esteem as the first novelist of his time; Meanwhile, that do not hesitate to measured by Heliodorus, the author of the Ethiopian or the «novel» par excellence: «The works of Persiles, book who dares to compete with heliodor, if already by daring comes out with his hands on the head» (prologue to exemplary novels). Without a doubt, Cervantes was intended to get back at the fame of «comic» novelist who had brought him the laughable nature of Don Quixote and enters Byzantine «gender» ready to fill it with seriousness and significance.

Behind, because, from the Greek 'model', already grown in Spanish by Nuñez de Reinoso (thinning and Florisea), Jerónimo de Contreras (jungle adventure) or Lope de Vega (the Pilgrim in his homeland), Cervantes abides here to the canons neoaristotelicos and events of the Byzantine genre: a «romance» clearly Christian, tridentino, based in the central figure of the pilgrim who is morally purified in its continuous wandering traveler; just next to the "perfect novel" model, as is outlined in the first part (Chapter 47) of Don Quixote:

"They were long and spacious field where no qualms one could run pen, discovering shipwrecks, storms, encounters and battles; painting a captain courageous with all parties who are required to be such, showing prudent to preventing the astuteness of his enemies, and eloquent orator persuading or dissuading their soldiers, ripe in the Council, presto in determined, so brave the wait and rushing; painting or an unfortunate and tragic incident, now a cheerful and not thought out event; there a beautiful lady, honest, discreet and demure; here a gentleman Christian, brave and courteous; yonder a runaway blowhard barbarian; here a Prince Valiant, courteous and well regarded; representing kindness and loyalty of vassals, greatness and mercedes of Lords. Already you can show a astrologer, already excellent cosmographer, and musician, already intelligent in matters of State, and perhaps coming occasion show necromancer, if you like. You can display the astuteness of Ulixes, the piety of Aeneas, the courage of Achilles, the misfortune of Héctor, betrayals of Sinon, the friendship of Eurialio, the liberality of Alejandro, the value of César, mercy and truth of Trajan, the loyalty of Zopyrus, the prudence of Caton; and, finally, all those actions that can make a man illustrious, now putting them on one