Biography of Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874-1965)

Winston Churchill.

Political, military and English writer, born in Blenheim Palace, near Oxford, on November 30, 1874 and died in London on January 24, 1965.

Biographical synthesis

Member of a family of English aristocracy, studied at prestigious boarding schools, where he received dismal academic results. At the age of 18, he entered the Royal Military College in Sandhurst and after concluding the statement he was assigned to the 4th Regiment of Hussars. Between 1895 and 1898, he participated in the war of Cuba, in the Malakand campaign, and in India, as well as the burden of Oldurman, in Sudan. After the latter, he called down from his post. In 1899, he joined the conservative party and noted for his large gifts as an orator; that same year travelled to South Africa as a war correspondent and decided to again join the army, participating in the liberation of Ladysmith and Pretoria. In 1900 he was elected Deputy, but differences with some members of his party led to its incorporation in 1903, to the Liberal Party. In 1906 he was appointed under-Secretary for colonies; in 1907 he was inducted into the Privy Council of King Eduardo VII and a year later was appointed Minister of trade, that same year he married Clementine Ogilvy. In 1910 he was appointed Minister of the interior, in which faced numerous strikes. In 1911 the European situation was very tense and Churchill was appointed first lord of the Admiralty, since his new post was an important work in the early years of the first world war. After leaving both jobs he went to the Netherlands, where he came into combat as Lieutenant Colonel of the 6th battalion of the Royal Fusiliers Scot. In 1917 he was appointed Minister of munitions, where he remained until the end of the war, two years later he held the Ministry of air and war but soon after, due to the crisis that existed in the Arab countries, he was appointed Minister of colonies. After the end of the first Labour Government, Churchill because of the many problems he had with the members of the Liberal Party, began to reach out to conservatives.

In 1923 he was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer, in which lasted until 1929, which attempted to revive the English economy. At the end of his tenure as Chancellor, he was sidelined in Parliament and until 1939 did not occupy any position of responsibility. In 1939 he was again appointed first lord of the Admiralty and following the resignation of Chamberlain, he held the position of Prime Minister until the end of the second world war. The great electoral failure of 1945, forced him to move to the opposition, until after the elections of 1951, he managed to again be named Prime Minister, in which remained until 1955. During these years it worsened their health status and there were many pressures so abandon power. After finishing his term he traveled all over the world and received important international awards, like the Nobel Prize for literature for his World War II work. Churchill left Parliament in 1964 and died on January 24, 1965.

Childhood and youth

Member of one of the most important aristocratic families in England, was born in a Palace owned by his grandfather, the seventh Duke of Marlborough, a month ahead of schedule and was baptized with the names of Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill. First son of Randolph Churchill and the American citizen Jennie Jerome, at two years of age moved with his family to Dublin, since his grandfather was appointed viceroy of Ireland, and his father served as his private Secretary. Given the elevated position of his family, the Irish independence groups, known as fenianos, threatened to kidnap the small Winston, to force the resignation of the Duke in this way. For this reason it was strictly monitored by the personnel in charge and especially by his nanny, Mrs. Everet, which spent much of his childhood.

In 1879 he was enrolled in Saint Jaimes School, in the County of Ascot, in which very soon became miserable due to the strict discipline to which it was subjected. His academic results were also very poor, mostly by the deep aversion that felt by the study of the classical languages and mathematics, although he stressed by their results in English language. In 1883 the mentioned boarding school, abandoned since he contracted a serious illness, being transferred to the city of Brignton, where he began his recovery slowly and was attended by the most prestigious doctors. As his health was somewhat weakened, he was enrolled in a school in the area, where while discipline was not so strict, its academic results did not improve. Three years later he contracted pneumonia and, after its new convalescence, his parents decided to change school.

Sir Randolph, was not a rich man and for that reason should direct the steps of his firstborn for a career that will provide you with an elevated position, but this had proven to be an undisciplined student and it was difficult to have success at the University. So he decided to guide studies of his son to his military career, which had shown great interest since childhood. Since his health remained very fragile he was enrolled at Harrow School, since doctors considered that it could harm the climate of Eton. Its results remained very poor and after beginning the courses of preparation for the examinations at the Royal Military College in Sandhurst, his parents were informed of their lack of progress in this regard. Churchill suspended the entrance exam twice and only remained an opportunity to make possible your income, this is why sir Randolph, in a last attempt, sought a tutor specializes in preparing students for the aforementioned test. Returning to his family home, with 18 years of age, he suffered a fall from a tree, which made you on bedrest for six months. The time that remained in bed, employed it to apply in his studies and finally managed to pass the entrance examination. Due to its half note poor he was admitted at the school of cavalry officers, and not in the infantry as wished his father; which meant that his family should be a major expenditure to finance the new Cadet horses. In spite of everything was excited, since he had demonstrated during all his youth great love for horses and hobby by polo practice.

After starting his studies at the Royal Military College in Sandhurst, very soon he highlighted by their academic results and cultivated the friendship of many officers and soldiers veterans. So after 18 months of stay at Sandhurst, graduated eighth in his class. Once the period of instruction, he returned to his family home waiting to be assigned destination. At this time his father fell seriously ill and died on January 21, 1895. In the spring of that same year was appointed to the 4th Regiment of Hussars, with garrison in Aldershot, where on many occasions commented, as he says in his memoirs, their desires into action as soon as possible.

After receiving your first permission, he found that he was in serious economic trouble and concentrated its attention on planning their income to avoid the need to borrow more money from his mother. It was decided that a good solution would be to get into action at the only war that remained open at the moment, the war of Cuba. Churchill was in contact with the English Ambassador to Spain, Henry Wolf, which had been a close friend of his father; to ask him to intercede for him with the Spanish authorities in order to merge, temporarily, the armies stationed in the mentioned island. The Ambassador gave the request to O'Donnell, who was delighted with the offer and wrote a letter of recommendation that will submit to the general Martínez Campos. Churchill after a brief scale in New York, arrived in Havana in the month of November 1895, and was received with all the honors, had also been commissioned, the Daily Graphic newspaper, make five chronicles the progress of the war, so the payment of these chronicles allowed him to improve their precarious economic situation. Churchill met shortly afterwards with Martínez Campos in Santa Clara and decided to join the column led by Suárez Valdés. On November 30, 1895 he took part in his first military action and he was able to see the great difficulties which the Spaniards had to control the uprising. Churchill returned to England very impressed by the events that had witnessed, retained fond memories of his comrades of arms and especially the beauty of Cuba, where he also acquired some habits that would continue throughout his life, NAP and smoking cigars.

After returning to his post in Aldershot, he received the news that his regiment had been earmarked for the India. Before his departure, Churchill published his first short story in a magazine, which was titled Overboard, and began writing the novel, published four years later, Savrola. He came to the India and settled in Bangalore, where soon he became bored by the lack of action, also a drop at the time of the landing, produced you a lesion in shoulder, that never heal completely. Back in London, after obtaining a licence, he met the news that it had resumed hostilities in the Malakand pass and decided to return to join the army in the area. Initially, not could join the mentioned army, since official posts were all covered, but if you obtained the authorization to merge as a reporter of war of the newspapers The Pioneer, the city of Bombay; and the Daily Telegraph of London. After the battle of the Mamund Valley his wish came true and it was incorporated into the army. He obtained the position of Lieutenant in the regiment of infantry no. 31, Pujab, known at the time as the sikhs Regiment. After participating in some skirmishes, the area was pacified and the focus of British rule was in the Tirah Valley, to the North of Peshawar. Churchill tried to be to bring you to the area, but could not get it and returned to his post in his regiment, which dealt with the instruction of the new cadets. Disappointed for not being in the first line of combat, he devoted much of his time to writing and in 1898 her mother sent the manuscript of the book entitled history of the campaign of Malakand, which enjoyed great success and earned him the congratulations of the Prince of Wales; In addition favorable criticism you encouraged to conclude the novel started years earlier, Savrola.

After the total pacification of the India, Churchill became interested in the new open in Sudan conflict and decided to return to London, to try to be earmarked for the area. Upon arrival he was received by the Prime Minister, lord Salisbury, who congratulated him on his book; It is possible that it used its influence so that the young lieutenant was sent to Sudan. Appointed supernumerary Lieutenant of the regiment of Lancers No. 21, by the time that will last the conflict, on September 1, 1898 became the camp that had been intended, being his most outstanding performance participation in charge of Ondurman. After this campaign, he decided that it was time to abandon the army, because of the numerous locks that had to face by their enemies; and above all to his journalistic career reported higher income than military activity. So he returned to Bangalore in order to obtain the absolute license.

Beginning of political career

Churchill came to London in the spring of 1899, and decided to begin his political career in the conservative party. Thanks to his great gifts as an orator, he was soon elected to participate in important political rallies, where criticized the actions of the members of the Liberal Party strongly. Determined to consolidate his political career, that same year went to the parliamentary elections, presenting its candidature for the Oldham district, although he failed to be elected. He also published a new book entitled war of the Nile, which was welcomed by his colleagues coldly, because that in it he explained that it was necessary to develop new forms of Government in the colonies that would give them more independence.

After the outbreak of the Guerra of the Boers, in 1899, he was commissioned to travel to South Africa as correspondent of the Morning Post. The conflict with the boer had barely begun and hostilities were concentrated in the city of Natal, which turned Churchill quickly. The November 14 of that year decided to visit the siege of Ladysmith, but did not mentioned city since the train that was traveling was hijacked by the boer. Churchill took command in the desperate situation and got most of the passengers to flee in the mentioned railway locomotive, but it, failed to escape and was imprisoned in Pretoria, as a prisoner of war, but shortly after he managed to escape. After days of wandering through the Transvaal area, he found refuge in the home of an English settler, John Howard, and spent some weeks hidden in a mine, until his guard could evacuate him and became the English Consulate of the Portuguese colony of Lorenzo Márquez. Churchill was considered a hero by his action, both in England and in South Africa and after these events, decided to join the army, in December 1899. Thus he participated in the liberation of Ladysmith and was the first to enter, along with their men, the city. Churchill tried joining the staff, but initially was not accepted your request. Thanks to his perseverance and that had important friends, finally he was admitted, but had to face that many consider an upstart, but this not discouraged him and participated in the taking of Petroria.

On 7 July 1900 he again left the army and returned to London, where it was already a very popular character. Shortly afterwards she resumed his political career and was presented to elections to the Parliament, once again by the District of Oldham, where this time he defeated his opponents by a narrow margin, he was only 26 years old. But it was able not to his career with comfort, since its new activities not were going to allow to devote himself to journalism, activity which obtained their income, that is why before joining Parliament toured England, United States and Canada giving a series of lectures about his adventures in Africa, which provided funds to live comfortably for some years.

In his first speech to the Chamber, adopted a pacifist stance regarding the actions that should be performed in the colonies, this is why many members of the conservative party began to criticize him openly. In addition he was supporter of liberal theories, so his ideas were close to the Liberal Party. Finally in 1903 Churchill joined mentioned party, quit his job in Parliament and sat next to the Liberals, being received with a warm hug by David Lloyd George.

In 1906, following the election call, the Liberals came to power. The new head of Government, Henry Campbell-Bannerman, offered Churchill the Undersecretary of the Treasury, charge very well paid and very important in the Administration, but it rejected the offer and asked to be granted the Secretary of colonies, since he finally obtained. That same year Churchill ended the biography of his father, entitled The life of Sir Randolph Churchill, who was a great success. Since his new post was to the Embassy boer, who came to England with the aim of signing the peace there could know the identity of his captor in the mentioned episode of the train, Louis Botha, whereupon he locked a great friendship later. Churchill began to have some problems with prominent members of the Liberal Party, since many of the decisions taken were closer to the way of proceeding of the Conservatives, despite everything he won great popularity throughout Europe and was invited by the kaiser Guillermo to witness the maneuvers of the German army in Breslau.

In 1907 he was appointed member of the Privy Council of King Eduardo VII, and got that peace was signed definitively with the boer. Churchill who had done a great job, considered that its work had been completed in the Secretary of colonies, for this reason, in order to make their work less monotonous and given that Parliament remained quiet, decided to make a trip to the colonies which had jurisdiction. In April 1908 he returned to London he had news of the resignation of Bannerman and the coming to power of Henry Asquith, which appointed him Minister of trade. Churchill according to English law was bound to fill the new post, to renew its parliamentary act, thus presented his candidacy the Northwest District of Manchester, where he was defeated by the amazing recovery of conservatives and by the total animosity felt towards the suffragists, who attended many of their rallies in order to boycott them. He finally won his seat in the Scottish district of Dundee. During the campaign, he met his future wife, Clementine Ogilvy Hozier, which contracted marriage in the Church of Santa Margarita de Westminster, in September 1908. That same year he published his book entitled my trip to Africa.

After returning from honeymoon, Churchill found that the situation in London was very tense, as the situation in the Balkans had deteriorated and Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina; on the other hand the privileged situation of the Englishmen in the Persian Gulf was in serious danger by the revolution of the young Turks; but the problem that divided members of Parliament was the news of the construction of a powerful Navy by Germany, since this could mean the end of English naval hegemony and also a great threat to its security. Churchill felt that it would be a huge waste of resources, the construction of more warships, since the English security was not in danger, these statements made him very unpopular in the country. Churchill from his post as Minister supported the new budget presented by Lloyd George and social reforms which sought to carry out, as the law of labor retirement, also published a book titled the rights of the people, which was branded as the House of Lords of anachronistic institution. The refusal of the Lords to approve these reforms and the budget mentioned, was a serious constitutional crisis and the Government decided to hold elections for the views of the people. After several crises Government and the intervention of the new King, Jorge V, Churchill obtained a dream win in the District of Dundee, in the 1910 election, that same year birth of her first daughter, baptized with the name of Diana; and he was appointed Minister of the Interior. Shortly before coming to office he made a trip to the Mediterranean, where witnessed the German threat was a fait accompli, since the construction of the railway which entered into conflict with the English colonial interests. On his return, he had to deal with numerous riots and strikes throughout the country and decided to ask for the help of the army to resolve the situation, which made him earn the enmity of the representatives of the trade unions, but popularity grew.

His second son, Randolph, was born in 1911 and in the autumn of that same year the Prime Minister Asquith invited him to spend a few days in Scotland, in order to resolve the diplomatic crisis open with Germany, since the 1st of July a German war ship, docked at the port Agadir Moroccan, leaving the resolutions taken at the Algeciras Conference in question. It is very possible that at this meeting the first plans of war against Germany should work and Churchill after his return, tried to control the activities of numerous German spies who remained on English soil. Shortly afterwards was appointed first lord of the Admiralty, so it had to be able to lead the army and Navy. In addition to problems abroad, Churchill had to confront a serious domestic problem, the Irish question, thus offered to mediate between the North and the South, Irish since he was convinced that the solution to the conflict was going through grant promised autonomy, while continuing to take the necessary precautions so that the Protestants of Ulster would be protected.

The first world war

On June 28, 1914 Churchill had prepared for conducting war maneuvers, but after the death of the Archduke Fernando Francisco, decided to postpone them and organized a movement of reservists. The lawsuit of Ireland was in the background due to the serious international situation and Churchill said that England should be supported to France where he suffered an attack by Germany. After hearing the news that Russia had declared war on Germany, decided to mobilize the army, on August 1, 1914; While the Prime Minister recommended him to wait until the next day, when they were to meet the Council of Ministers. On 2 August the British Government sent an ultimatum to Germany to respect the neutrality of Belgium, what amounted to a declaration of war. A few days later, on 11 August, England and France declare war on Austria-Hungary.

Churchill directed the movements of hundreds of English ships, scattered all over the world and was responsible for preparing the air defences of England. After the battle of the Marne, from 6 to 9 September, he tried to join the British army, but before reaching the conflict zone had to return to his job in London, since the Belgian King requested the help of the British, to protect the city of Antwerp. Churchill could not send troops to the area, at the moment, but decided to come personally to give encouragement to the population, even attempt to get in front of the troops that came to rescue the mentioned city, but the English Prime Minister, believed that his presence was required in London and refused to accept his resignation. Churchill expressed on several occasions their desire to join the fight, but the German attack on the towns of Yarmouth and Lowestoft general criticism of the performance of the Admiralty, so he decided to stay in his post, even if the victory of the Falkland Islands, silenced criticism quickly.

After the entry into the war in Turkey, Churchill expressed the need that had the allies take over Istanbul to help the Russians, but operation plan required time and the Grand Duke could not resist both. On April 25, 1915 came a contingent of British and Australian troops landing at Gallipoli, despite which the Dardanelles remained in the hands of the Turks, and there were numerous casualties. Churchill after the failure of the risky operation, many of the props that had lost, but decided to continue in his post, after intercepting a German encrypted message in which gave the order to attack England, managed that the German plans not are in practice since the Navy prepared in record time to present battle. But in May 1915, a new failure at Gallipoli forced him to leave his post at the Admiralty and while it followed while retaining his position as Minister, decided to leave his job and join the army.

Shortly after his resignation came to Holland, where John French, thanks to his military experience, put him in command of a brigade, although Asquith from London questioned this decision, on the grounds that it went against the interests of the Government and that the former Minister should assume command of a battalion, thus following the withdrawal of FrenchChurchill was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the 6th battalion of the Royal Fusiliers Scot. While their interventions were not featured, he managed to recover much of the prestige lost in his country, but could not fill the post of Lieutenant for a long time because of the many casualties of his battalion, this had to be merged with another and Churchill lost office to the greater antiquity of the Lieutenant-Colonel of the other unit.

While he remained inactive in the front, he devoted much of his time to write and maintained a wide correspondence with his contacts in London, indicating that it could be a good time to return to political life. Finally he returned and in his first speech he said that it was necessary to develop aviation, as a weapon of war, but this idea was considered fantasy by most English politicians. Churchill managed to regain their standing almost completely, anyone already considered that he would have been responsible for the defeat of the Dardanelles and the Admiralty commissioned the development of a story about the battle of Jutland. Despite the veto of the Conservatives, on July 16, 1917, he was appointed Minister of munitions with the support of the people; from this time developed a feverish activity and it boosted the construction of armoured cars, which provided a great service in major battles such as the Cambrai. Churchill remained in his post until the end of the war and wept excited when the news reached London that the allies had defeated the Germans definitely.

After the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, Churchill said that it was necessary to intervene in Russia against the Bolsheviks, but the international situation was not conducive to start a war again. He also expressed that the conditions imposed on Germany could generate great resentment toward the allies and this eventually could be the beginning of new conflicts.

El interwar period

On January 15, 1919, Lloyd George reformed the Government and appointed as Minister of air and war, Churchill from his new post dealt with reintegrate into civil society to the large number of soldiers who had been recruited during the war. Shortly afterwards broke a campaign against her, since he tried to delay the exit of Russia from the English armies as possible.

International events returned to occupy their attention, so the Arab peoples who had been subjected to the Turks revolted and Lloyd George, Churchill chose to occupy the colonies portfolio. This decided that your closer partner would be Colonel Lawrence, which advised him that meet with the Arab leaders as soon as possible, so at a meeting in Cairo, Churchill supported the emir Faysal so ruled in Iraq and entrusted the Emir Abdullah Government of the Transjordan, also tried to find a formula so that Palestinians and Jews to reach the understanding. In recent years much of his spare time dedicated it to write their impressions about the first world war in several volumes. After solving the Middle East crisis, fixed his attention on the Irish conflict, Churchill was unable to reach understanding with important independence leaders, as Michael Collins, according to Ireland plans would go on to become an autonomous State within the Empire, but Ulster would continue as part of England, but De Valera refused to sign the Treaty, Collins died shortly afterwards, and Churchill was threatened with death by the Irish Republican Army.

The Turkish revolution of Mustafá Kemal triggered a huge political crisis in England, which marked the rupture of the liberal conservative coalition remained in power. After a new election call Churchill failed to keep his seat in the District of Dundee and was politically marginalized by the Conservatives, who had come to power.

Churchill who, during the election campaign, had surgery for appendicitis, by their doctors Council undertook a long trip, visited Spain and Italy and remained 6 months in Cannes. He finally returned to England in the spring of 1923 and acquired an estate in Kent County, to retire from public life. After the death of Prime Minister Bonar Law, his replacement, Stanley Baldwin, called elections that decided to be Churchill, in West Leicester district, although once again was defeated. The arrival of the labour party to power bothered her, since he felt that they did not have enough strength to govern, since support that you Liberals could not last long. The death of a member of the District of Westminster Abbey, shortly afterwards, offered a new opportunity to be elected, although due to their differences with important members of his party decided to arise independently, either on this occasion achieved its purpose. After the fall of the first Labour Government, new elections were called and it was presented by the District of Epping, his approach to the Conservative Party was evident in this election. Churchill said in their speeches that the revolutionary socialism was a big problem for the maintenance of order and democracy, and the emergence of the Zinoviev letter came to endorse his theories, which provided him a seat in Parliament.

After the arrival of Baldwin to power, Churchill, who again enjoyed great popularity, was appointed in 1923, Chancellor of the Exchequer, in which remained with great success until 1929. From this position the pattern again established gold in England and prepared four new budgets, in which established a tax on alcoholic beverages and another on horse bets, also tried reviving English industry and stimulate economic growth. It should be noted his visit to Italy in 1924, where he met Benito Mussolini; and the great care with which followed German political events, so the publication of Mein Kampf Adolf Hitler and the nazi party expansion, led him to publish a series of leaflets that warned of the huge danger that hung over Europe.

After a new election call, in which Churchill retained his seat, the Labour Party came to power. After the campaign he travelled to Canada and back to his homeland resumed his activity as writer that led him to publish the book titled my first years, the eastern front and a biographical study on Marlborough, also returned to publish newspaper articles in the journal Stand Magazine. These years were quiet as did not take part with such intensity in political life, so after a new electoral campaign traveled to New York, where on December 15, 1933 was hit by a car on the 5th Avenue, although without serious consequences.

Supporter of non-intervention in the Spanish Civil War, the agreements of the Conference of Munich sentenced in 1938 and continued exhibiting in their speeches the need that had England's rearm, that year he published while England slept, but their ideas were not heeded by the Government until the war was a fait accompli. On 1 September 1939, Neville Chamberlain had to give the reason and due to huge popular pressure, first lord of the Admiralty, appointed two days later Britain and France declared war on Germany.

La Second World War

On May 10, 1940, following the resignation of Chamberlain, Churchill was appointed Prime Minister and formed a Government of national unity, while it did not have the support of some members of his party, who would have preferred the appointment of lord Halifax; and it was the head of the war cabinet. He came to power in a very delicate moment for their country, since after starting the battle of Britain, the German aviation attacks were constant and caused large losses of human and material. In addition the English Navy was insufficient to cope with this new war, primarily by the addition of Japan to the axis and great development of German war submarines. Churchill knew that it was necessary that the United States entered World War II, in this way already from his post at the Admiralty, he decided to convince President Roosevelt, in this sense, obtaining also important economic aid to deal with the great war effort in 1941, following the signing of the Atlantic Charter, thanks to the adoption of the law on loans and leases; Churchill obtained from United States important supplies. On the other hand, at first I know it was cautious with respect to the USSR, because since the end of the first world war it had maintained that it was necessary to overthrow the Bolsheviks, but the new situation imposed him to negotiate with Stalin and on May 26, 1942 was the signing of the Treaty of Anglo-Soviet Alliance. Churchill repeatedly showed his great skills as a diplomat and was one of the architects of the so-called Grand Alliance, from 1941 to 1944 participated in numerous conferences, such as Casablanca, Cairo and Tehran; It had as a result the collaboration developed between Englishmen, Americans and Soviets to organize the Allied offensive.

Since coming to power, he had tried to encourage the population and soldiers to resist, so frequent were his radio speeches to raises the morale of the country. He decided that it was necessary to open new fronts away from England, and sent to Africa the few tanks that remained after the German bombing, and an important military contingent, achieving an important victory against the Italians at Tobruk, which secured the defence of Cairo. But not all his plans succeeded, since the actions undertaken in Greece, to gain control of the Balkans, failed and the troops had to be hastily evacuated. It also boosted the use of aviation in war and from 1942 collaborated with the United States in bombing German cities, responsible for actions carried out in the Mediterranean, such as the taking of Sicily. The victories allied in Africa and the German defeat of Stalingrad, led the retreat of the German army, from that moment collaborated with the Alliance by ordering limited and scattered attacks on the periphery of Germany, in these final years of the war, England became the main American base in Europe.

The military actions of the Allies led to the fall of the Third Reich in May 1945, Churchill participated in the preparations for the Normandy landings and expressed its desire to set sail with the fleet that carried out the projected invasion of occupied France, but Jorge VI convinced him otherwise to the great relief of the chiefs of the General staff. Churchill developed up to the end of the war a great activity and noteworthy was his intervention at the Yalta Conference and Potsdam Conference, although not aunque no estuvo he was present at the conclusion of it, since he had to return to his country to participate in the parliamentary elections convened for the month of July 1945, where it was defeated by the Clement Attlee labourDespite the enormous prestige that had acquired during the war and have received two months before one of the largest you ovation that she is remembered in the English Parliament.

Churchill during the war carried out major social reforms in the country aimed to organize civil life, thus introduced rationing, free food in schools and tried to achieve full employment, but nevertheless increasingly showed more reactionary in some of its resolutions, thus not allowed to be nationalized the coal industry and accused the BBC of being a nest of Communists, but from the point of view of perception public was his tepid response to the Breveridge report, which advocated a full welfare after of the war.

Churchill making the victory sign

Last years

Churchill after the electoral defeat served as leader of the opposition against the labour intensive, and showed their displeasure after the abandonment of the India in 1947 and said that English domination was the only possibility that had the citizens of this country to achieve a democratic system after the abandonment, the policy would be in the hands of the brahamanes. Despite the lateness of his age continued to carry out a frenzied activity, thus gave a series of lectures all over the world, in which tried to analyze the European situation after the end of the war, by wedging in 1946 the expression 'iron curtain' in reference to the division of Europe into two political blocs; It supported the creation of the European Community, as a prelude to the formation of a European United States; and the development of NATO. In these years he began the drafting of Historia de la Mundial Guerra II, in six volumes; work for which he received in 1953 the Nobel Prize for literature; the work titled history of the peoples of English-speaking and in 1948 began to write his memoirs. But their powers were in decline and health problems were common, so each time was more difficult to adapt to the new times, but enjoyed the honors that were granted him around the world, thanks to his work during the war. In 1947 he was operated for a herniated and suffered mild colds that made many think that his retirement would be imminent, although followed surprised his countrymen by his great power.

In 1950 following a tough election campaign the Labour Party won the elections by only 6 seats of difference, the situation was profoundly unstable and Churchill during the 18 months following made notable interventions in Parliament. In 1951 the new election call gave the victory to the Conservatives, although only by 16 seats of difference and Churchill was given the task of forming a Government. His term as Prime Minister began on 26 October of that year and was completed on April 5, 1955, the criticisms towards how to choose new Ministers were swift, since Churchill who barely knew the younger members of his party and selected some of his oldest and most loyal aides. During these years the eccentric habits of Churchill were on the rise and it seems that he had a tendency to postpone important decisions, also his memory began to fail him. Broadly maintained the labour economic policy, which benefited from the improvement of the world economic situation, thus maintained the network of nationalizations and sought to maintain good relations with the trade unions. In 1952 he received from the hands of Elizabeth II the order of the garter and the title of sir. Churchill who adored the young Queen, organized acts of his coronation. The frantic activity that was submitted during the year 1953, since he had to take charge of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, illness of the holder; and their participation in the Conference of Prime Ministers of the Commonwealth; they were too much for him and had to be hospitalised on June 23 after suffering an attack of pneumonia, but he refused to leave and returned to his post on 25 August. Churchill kept his great ambition until the end of his career and longed with be granted the Nobel Peace Prize, for this reason tried to start negotiations between the Soviet Union and United States, but after several attempts it had to withdraw.

Churchill after his retirement was devoted mainly to write and paint, and made numerous trips all over the world, which continued to receive notable awards, including the French cross of liberation or the appointment of citizen fee in the United States, but the lack of new challenges and his advanced age rapidly deteriorated his health and suffered continuous periods of apathy and depression. Finally in 1964, he retired from the House of Commons and put an end to his parliamentary life.

In early 1965, suffered an attack of pneumonia, which left him in coma; a few days later, on 24 January, he died in London. His mortal remains were deposited, and by his express desire, in the Pantheon that his family owned in the cemetery of Blandon and his compatriots fired him a massive funeral, on 30 January, in which received honours of a head of State.

The British statesman was very fond of animals, especially parrots. Precisely, in January 2004 was discovered one of their pets in perfect condition, despite its 104 years: Charlie, a talkative parrot that Churchill bought in 1937 and taught that to blaspheme. Among their favorite expressions are "damn Hitler" and "bloody nazis", which still echoes with the typical Churchill let. After the death of the British Prime Minister (1965), his heirs sold the Parrot to Peter Oram, owner of a great garden in Surrey Center.

Bibliography

BRENDON, P. Winston Churchill. Barcelona, Planeta-De Agostini, 1995.

CHURCHILL, W. The second world war. Madrid, the sphere of books, 2001.

TUSELL, J. Manual of Universal history, today's world. Madrid, vol. 9. History 16, 1997.

CHURCHILL, w. memories. Translation of Juan g. Luaces. 6 volumes. Barcelona, José Janés (collection books of our time), 1949.