Biography of Gabriel Ciscar y Ciscar (1760-1829)

Marina General, mathematician and Spanish physicist born in Oliva (Valencia) in 1760 and died in Gibraltar in 1829. He was nephew of Gregorio Mayans and Císcar.

He studied in the pious schools of Valencia. At the age of fourteen he enrolled at the University of this city to pursue the career of laws, studies interrupted in 1777 to enter the Academy of Midshipmen in Cartagena; then did some campaigns in the seas of Europe and America. In 1782, in Cartagena, he continued his studies at the Academy of Midshipmen. Shortly after he was appointed Professor of mathematics and navigation. In 1788, promoted to Lieutenant; He reached the position of director of the aforementioned Academy. Some time later he was called to the Court to deal with the maritime review reprint, Jorge Juan. Císcar considerably enriched the work, adding a comprehensive presentation of the principles of the calculation, notes to the text, new proposals and criticism of each other, with demonstration of its falsity.

In 1796 he took a trip to Tripoli, in which precisely determined longitude in several points of the southern coast of Sardinia and elsewhere. In 1798 he was appointed Commandant of the Corps of the Department of Cartagena Navy artillery and this year was chosen by the Spanish Government, together with Agustín de Pedrayes, as the representative of Spain at the meeting convened by the Institute of France to check the definitive patterns of the metric system and fix the principles of this.

On his return from Paris, Císcar published an elementary report on new weights and decimal, founded in nature. This work presents the advantages of the new metric system, proposes a Spanish nomenclature and expressed the relationship of new weights and measures with those used in Spain. In this same work, Císcar mentions four pendulums that had performed gravity experiences in Madrid, in order to compare them with those made in Paris.

To produce the French invasion in may 1808, Císcar became a part of the Board's observation and defense; in September following vocal Secretary of the military Junta General and, at the end of December, was appointed Secretary of the Supreme Council of war and Navy installed in Seville. Promoted to squadron leader, he was appointed political and military Governor of Cartagena, who served from 1809 to 1810. Last year he served as Secretary of State and the Universal Office of Marina. During the absence of Fernando VII, the courts he was appointed member of the Regency on two occasions: from 1810 to 1812, along with Pedro Agar and Joaquín Blake; and from 1813 to 1814, with the same Agar and the cardinal Luis de Borbón. Upon the return of Fernando VII, was jailed and later sentenced to confinement in Murcia, Cartagena, and olive. In 1820, Císcar returned to Madrid to its former position of Secretary of State and, in 1823, was part of the provisional Regency along with Cayetano Valdés and Gaspar Vigodet. Restored the absolute power of the King, it ordered the confiscation of the property of Císcar and his death sentence, penalty which was saved taking refuge in Gibraltar, where he enjoyed the economic help of Arturo Wellesley, Duke of Wellington. He remained there until his death.

Císcar published several works of didactic, with destination to teaching. Among these works, the most famous is the course of basic studies of Navy, composed of four parts: arithmetic, geometry, cosmography and piloting. This served as a textbook for nautical studies until well into the 19th century and was reissued many times. Among his scientific works designed graphics methods should be printed to correct the Lunar distances to determine lengths in the Sea (explanation of various methods, 1803) and calculations made on the figure of the Earth from measurements of the length of the pendulum beating seconds, described in the report on astronomical observations made by Spanish navigators in different parts of the globesorted by José Espinosa and Tello (1809).

In the last stage of his life in Gibraltar, Císcar published a fisico-astronomico poem, in which showed his broad scientific erudition. In this work, Císcar paid tribute to several of the best Spanish scientists of the 18th century, as Tomás Vicente Tosca, Jorge Juan, Antonio Ulloa, José Mendoza y Ríos, José Espinosa and Tello, Agustín de Betancourt, José de Mazarredo and Martín Fernández de Navarrete.

Bibliography

Sources

BARRAQUER and ROVIRA, Joaquin: Speech read to the Royal Academy of exact, physical and natural sciences on the role of the pendulum in the investigation of the figure of the Earth. Madrid, 1881, p. 24.CISCAR, Gabriel: test maritime theoretical D. Jorge Juan; ... Second Edition augmented with an exposition of the principles of calculation, text notes and additions. Madrid: IMP. Real, 1793.CISCAR, Gabriel: tried to arithmetic. Murcia: M. Muñoz, 1795; reprinted in 1803 and 1840.CISCAR, Gabriel: tried to spherical trigonometry. Cartagena: Marina Office, 1796.CISCAR, Gabriel: elementary report on the new weights and measures decimals, founded in nature. Madrid: IMP. Real, 1800.CISCAR, Gabriel: course of basic studies of marina, 4 v. Madrid: IMP. Real, 1803; 2nd ed., Palma, IMP. Real, 1811.CISCAR, Gabriel: explanation of various graphics methods to correct the Lunar distances with the approach required to determine lengths in the sea, and to solve other problems of nautical astronomy. Madrid: IMP. Real, 1803.CISCAR, Gabriel: notes on dimensions, weights and coins that can be considered as a second part of the elemental memory... posted in 1800. Madrid: IMP. National, 1821.CISCAR, Gabriel: fisico-astronomico poem in seven cantos. Gibraltar, 1828; reprinted in Madrid: M. Rivadeneyra, 1861.ESPINOSA and TELLO, José: reports on astronomical observations made by Spanish navigators in various places. Madrid, 1809.FERNANDEZ DE NAVARRETE, M: maritime library Spanish. 7 vols. [Madrid]: widow of Jordan and sons, 1842-1852. v. I, pp. 521-ROYO 533.lopez, f.: Appendix to the memory on the methods of finding the length of the sea. Madrid, 1798.PALAU DULCET, A. Manual Hispanic bookseller. 28 vols. Barcelona-Madrid: J.M. Viader, 1948-1977. V. III, p. 500.

Studies

PASTOR FUSTER, j.: Valencian library. Valencia: J. Ximeno e I. Mompie, 1830. Vol. II, pp. 471-475.LOBO, Miguel: biography of D. Gabriel Císcar and Pascual. Included in the edition of the poem fisico-astronomico 1861.ROBERT, J.B.: "the lieutenant general of the Navy don Gabriel Císcar and Císcar (1760-1829)". Revista General de Marina, 158 (1960), 279-289.

Víctor NAVARRO BROTONS

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