Biography of Luis Collado (médico español, ca. 1520-1589)

Born in Valencia in 1520 and died in the same place in 1589. He/She studied arts and medicine at the University of Valencia and was formed as an anatomist Vesaliusbeside: "he was my only teacher knowledge of Anatomy (confess it openly) and how much might be my skills in dissection, to it, and not another, it must». In the same Valencia, influenced him mainly Miguel Jerónimo Ledesma, head of the local medical humanism, whose posthumous work was published in 1547. It was, therefore, a fervent follower of the humanist, intransigent with the avicenismo and the medieval tradition mentality.

After being Professor of surgery in 1546 and 1548, alternately occupied the Chair of Anatomy and simple, the «principles» and the «practical» from 1550 to 1574, in accordance with the then current Rotary system at the University of Valencia. In the last mentioned date, became the new Chair of «practical particular», created at his request and that worked without interruption for ten academic courses. Main medical figure of his time Valencia, enjoyed great prestige and influence, being Protophysician and visitor of the Kingdom from 1576 until his death.

As a successor to Pedro Jimeno, Collado was responsible for the consolidation of the culture of Anatomy in the University of Valencia in accordance with the assumptions of the reform vesaliana. Its main contribution to the morphological knowledge was the volume entitled Cl. Galeni Pergameni Liber de Ossibus... Enarrationibus ilustratus, which appeared in Valencia in 1555. It contains three texts of different lengths: a comment to the pharmaceutical book, a description of the holes and cranial sinuses and a «letter reader» in which justifies his defence of Vesalius Jacobus Sylvius attacks.

To understand the historical significance of this work of Collado, must take into account its immediate antecedent: the attack which in previous years had received Vesalius in two books of his former master in Paris, Sylvius. The first was a revised edition of the translation of the Liber de Ossibus by Ferdinando Balamio, accompanied by a comment intended to defend that criticism of their Osteology Galen were made in the factory. Its central thesis was that this writing of Galen "was exclusively human bones", while a "slanderer" is bent on that referred to bones of monkeys self-isolation. Two years later, the attack became furious in the famous Vaesani used calumniarum in Hippocratis Galénique rem anatomicam depulsio (1551), in whose title appears the words «Vesalius-vaesanus (fool)» set, Sylvius had already used in his commentary of 1549.

The work entire Collado and not only the «letter reader» is a defense of Vesalius Parisian Professor attacks. The same as Sylvius, uses the translation of Balamio, beginning by stating that he/she had falsified the pharmaceutical text with serious errors and omissions. His interest is to underline the opposing positions of «Vesalius, egregious Restorer of Anatomy» and «Jacobo Silvio, singular imitator of Galen».

The Hill decision is strict in favour of what is called "philosophical freedom" of Vesalius, reaching affirm that Galen «wanted to adapt his story to the bones of the monkeys that men's and even, in this book, are written many things that are only found in the bones of dogs". Therefore, your comment consists of an exhibition of osteology pursuant to the factory and to their own disectiva experience. His main argument in favour of Vesalius is observed in many directions which by itself had made. Despite his admiration for it, it has no problem in dissent from his views when they collide with data from his own experience, as happens, for example, when speaking of ethmoid and sphenoid suture holes that exist next to the root of the incisors. It also aspires to complete descriptions of Vesalius; He/She includes in this regard bone stapes, whose discovery Act, claiming to have made years ago, together with his disciple Cosme Medina, then Professor of Anatomy in Salamanca. Repeated again and again that the descriptions of Galeno are erroneous or applicable only to monkeys or dogs, on the other hand, calling «ridiculous» the argument of Sylvius that human nature had changed since classical times.

In the "letter to the reader» alluded to before, Collado justified, both admiration for the work of his master, and the fact that, «responding to Silvio... told him, occasionally, insulting words». His lucid defense of the ideas of Vesalius was the first published in Europe, together with the physician of Lindau, Renatus Henerus (1555) apology. The Hill Book, however, is of much greater importance as a reflection of one of the first European schools which grew the teaching and the anatomical investigation in accordance with the so-called vesalianos. The third of the texts contained in this book, entitled Ossium capitis foraminum, et ad tyrones brevis descriptio sinum, precisely corresponds to one of the lessons of Collado, published at the request of his disciples.

The influence of Collado, maintained over a period of more dilated than the Jimeno, was comparable to or greater than this. Over the years was the maximum medical figure of the University of Valencia, anatomical teaching was developed it significantly. In 1560 seceded the Chair of Anatomy and simple in two chairs separate, to deal with the matter of each for an entire academic year. Later, in 1567, the anatomical teaching was organized in two years, at the same time that happened to be monitored very strict so the practice of the "universal notomies e particulars" regulations.

The Valencian anatomical school was the center of the Spanish vesaliano movement. In the Crown of Aragon, teaching organization served as a model to the universities of Zaragoza and Barcelona, whose departments of Anatomy would not, however, have a practical activity leading up to the next century. In the de Castilla, Jimeno was the first holder of Alcalá, and after his early death, was succeeded by Pedro Marcos de Ayala, Valencian as almost everyone who then occupied the complutense Chair during the last third of the 16th century and the first years of the 17TH. In Salamanca, the Chair of Anatomy was created by agreement of cloister in September 1551, being appointed to perform it Cosme de Medina, whom we have already quoted as a disciple of Collado and his collaborator in the description of the ossicles of the ear. He/She held it for ten academic courses and was responsible for the part corresponding to the anatomy of the famous Statute of the University of Salamanca from 1561, containing rules of morphological teaching, directly inspired by the Valencian, which was perhaps the most thorough and demanding in sixteenth-century Europe. With the Valencian Anatomists were prominent figures who introduced new morphological approaches in various fields of medicine, including Francisco valleys , and the surgeon Francisco Díaz. Something similar can be said of other personalities of the first rank as Juan Tomás Porcell, who conducted the first systematic autopsies of extreme penitence and charity, in Zaragoza in the epidemic of 1564 milestone of great relief at the origins of modern pathological anatomy, and the famous silversmith Juan de Arfe, among whose works of a scientific nature is one of the most important treaties of artistic Anatomy of the Renaissance. It is also obliged to mention the catalan Francesc Micó, introducer of the mentality vesaliana anatomical education that is taught in the hospitals of the monastery of Guadalupe, which served as a prestigious Center of clinical training for doctors who had already obtained his title. A text from Spanish Eugenio Salazar, perhaps the best author of satirical letters in the Spain of the sixteenth century, reflects the known that became all the Peninsular kingdoms in the Anatomists of the Valencian school. "Caught between the hands poor bones - says describe a few marine hungry - and so will desforneciendo them their nerves and ropes as if his life had walked to the practice of Anatomy in Guadeloupe or in Valencia." As testimony to the image that the Valencian society had this school can score the way in which Gaspar Escolano highlighted in its decades (1610) the "anatomical cuts". It commended in this context to Pedro Jaime Esteve, to Jimeno and, very first term, Hill, who "go as root and thin the secrets of Anatomy, who cut their hands the most invisible partecillas of the human body; and he/she was the first who discovered a however, which is the organ of hearing, called estapeda, never wise by the ancient piece in the anatomy of the ear". Also highlights the influence of the school: "in the same florida was Collado... of our University and doctors had originated the news that usually has in Spain of Anatomy; or they knew it in Castile until they were Valencians to read it in Salamanca and Alcalá".

The starting point of the production itself medical Luis Collado was fully coincides with the views of Ledesma and Esteve. However, as other important followers of the humanist mentality, his position evolved to the so-called "hipocratista" galenism, current which clinical observation in the foreground and clubbing texts as the same model. This experience is reflected in his book Ex Hippocratis et Galeni monumentis Isagoge (1561) and, above all, his numerous manuscripts of pathological, clinical and therapeutic issue. Noteworthy among the latter, some observations in praxi, a study on dominant diseases in Valencia during the years 1571 and 1572 from the point of view of Hippocratic environmentalism, a summary on simple medicines, collecting surely his lessons as "herbes" teacher, and monographic exhibitions about the "putridas fevers" cephalic affections, tumors, which seem to correspond to his teaching activity from the new Chair of "private practice"created, as we know, at your request. To them must be added a treatise of therapeutic content, entitled indicationibus and printed in Valencia in 1572, which has not been so far locate specimens. Hill took advantage of its leading position in the Valencia medical environment to effectively oppose the resistance of the supporters of the exotic trend. For example, as a holder of "private practice" was ordered to use texts of Avicenna, Rhazes, and others of the same orientation. A 1575 document says, however, that "this doctor Collado has never wanted to meet what were commanded him".



Galeni Pergameni Liber de Ossibus... Enarrationibus ilustratus, Valencia, J. Mey, 1555 (has not been reprinted, although it is one of the volumes in preparation of the series of classic Hispanie Scientia, Cultural Valencia, Valencia, 1977 ff.). Former Hippocratis et Galeni monumentis Isagoge summa diligentia decerpta, ad faciendan medicinam non minus utilis quan order, Valencia, J. Mey, 1561 (republished in Valencia, B. Mace, 1674).The traditional repertoires cite, among the works of Hill, of indicationibus librum tz'unun, Valencia, D. Pérez, 1572, of which no copy is known.Two series of manuscripts of Collado were located. The first of them, preserved in the library of the Faculty of Medicine of the Complutense University of Madrid, includes notes from classes of Hill and also writing short notes perhaps of his own hand. The most important texts are graduates of simplicium medicamentorum facultativus, observations in Praxi, Constitutiones epidemicae annorum 1571-1572, In CL. Galeni Librum Methodi (1571), and putridarum curatione febrium capitis affectivus exercitationes. The second series is preserved in the British Museum and also contains notes from classes or school comments, among others, usu elementorum in mixtionibus, spititibus, praeternaturalibus tumoribus and symptomate et morbid.


PESET, and VIDAL, Juan B.: Valencian, 1878.CASANOVA, Peregrin remember apologetic Luis Collado, Valencia, Medical Institute: Doctor Luis Collado. Professor of the 16th century. Apologetics memory, Valencia 1895.lopez PIÑERO and José M. GARCÍA BALLESTER. Luis: Anthology of the anatomical Valencia School of the 16th century, Valencia, Chair and Institute for the history of medicine, 1962. (Play some fragments of his anatomical work, with Castilian translation and an introductory note).GARCIA BALLESTER. Luis: "The medical works of Luis Collado (d. 1589). Note by the way of a manuscript of the British museum (MS Sloane, 2489) "Asclepius 23 (1971), 263-270.lopez PINERO, José M.:"dissection and anatomical knowledge in the first half of the 16th century Spain"in books of history of medicine Hispaniola, 13 (1974), 51-110" (A comprehensive study of his anatomical work).LÓPEZ PIÑERO, José M. classic Valencian physicians of the century XVI, Valencia, Consellería de Sanitat i Consum, 1990, pp. 34-37, 41, 87-95.

José María López Piñero