Biography of Sir William Crookes (1832-1919)

Physicist and chemist English, born in London on June 17, 1832 and died on April 4, 1919, discovered the chemical element thallium and was a tireless and imaginative inventor. Your download of cathode ray tube was part of all experimental laboratories and led to the discovery of the electron and the photoelectric effect.

William Crookes was the eldest of seventeen children of a London tailor. He/She studied in his youth in the Royal College of Chemistry. His first job was as Assistant to Hofmann. In 1854 he/she became an Assistant at the Observatory of Oxford, and a year later won the Chair of chemistry of the University of Chester. After practice master, a substantial inheritance received allowed opened its own research laboratory in London and edited the influential Chemical News from 1859 to 1906.

In 1861, examining the emission spectrum of a piece of selenium in the rough, he/she observed a bright, new, line that led him to isolate a new chemical element, thallium, and examine their chemical properties. To this end he/she built the radiometer that bears his name, a modification of radiometer Hittorf, consisting of some blades with four fins very light, with their black sides, inserted in a blister of glass with a gas at low pressure in the interior. In the presence of radiant energy, the blades move. This device confirmed the kinetic theory of gases. He/She came to affirm the existence of a new State of matter, which he/she called radiant matter, in 1879 which earned him a prize of the Academy of Sciences of France equipped with Commemorative Medal and the sum of 3,000 francs. This award enabled him to become academic of the Institute of Sciences of France.

Crookes also studied electrical discharges in a vacuum tube, and discovered that cathode rays were travelling in a straight line, projected shadows, heated sites objects in its path, and turned with magnetic fields. All concluded that they were particles of negative electrical charge. Twenty years later, J. J. Thomson was able to identify them as electrons.

The scientific concerns of Crookes led him to invent a multitude of objects, from chemical dyes for the textile industry to antiseptics. He/She invented the espintariscopio, with which to detect the emission of alpha particles from radioactive elements. He/She researched the obtaining of industrial diamonds, studied about the obtaining of beet sugar and built write-downs. The need for chemical fertilizers from the nitrogen from the air in order to ensure the maintenance of crops collected in a treaty and even built a theory about telepathy, where he/she arrived to say that a wave communication established between the brains. Crookes compensated more than their ignorance in theoretical issues--especially mathematics--with a rare talent for experimentation.

His numerous articles include Disinfectants for Cattle plague (1866), Manufacture of Beetrot sugar in England (1870), Dyeing and Tissue printing (1882), London Water (1896) and Diamonds (1909).