Spanish painter of the 20th century, born May 11 from the year 1904 in Figueres (Girona), and died in his castillo-retiro in Púbol, in the Empordà region, January 23 in the year 1989.
Son of a notary of the town, already during early studies, the young Salvador Dalí gave samples of an incredible artistic precocity, highlighting in particular his innate ability for drawing, passion is duly promoted by their teachers who saw the student to a future figure of the painting. After completing basic studies, with pretty mediocre notes, Dalí moved to Madrid, in the year 1921, intending to enroll in the school of fine arts of San Fernando, in which proof of income already revealed his ability, in addition to samples of a flamboyant character who later would give problems with the institution. His peculiar way of being and acting was evident in the year 1923, being separated from the school during a course because of a serious lack of discipline and, again in the same year, at the be expelled permanently from school after having declared incompetent to the Court which had to be considered.
During his years of stay in the capital, the artist lived at the Residencia de Estudiantes, where he soon came into close contact with young people who were the best in the arts of the country, such as Luis Buñuel, Dámaso Alonso, Rafael Barradas, Federico García Lorca, etc. Thanks to his friendship with this last came up the execution of several sceneries made by Dali for the great poet from Granada theatrical compositions. Dali agreed in Madrid to a completely new environment for him, to a Bohemian Madrid that intrigued him and which opened to the new artistic currents that were preparing and rehearsing. The young catalan artist painting was influenced by all these heterogeneous experiences. If so far, Dali had framed his paintings within the pure academic tradition, with their stay in Madrid evolved into all types of avant-garde, from Cubism to de Chirico'smetaphysical painting. Precisely, the influence of this last was one of the best-known paintings of the Dali presurrealista, girl on his back staring out the window, from the year 1925. In this work Dali showed his great master painting a series of exquisite sobriety, without this diminishing an iota of the mystery that surrounds the female figure, concealed his face to the Viewer. Dali showed his personality in the realistic interpretation of the theme and the strength and precision of the outlines and shapes of the female figure.
With works such as this, which shows its exceptional technical virtuosity, he participated in this period in various exhibitions, such as those organized by the prestigious Gallery Dalmau, Barcelona, and by the Hall of Iberian artists, of Madrid.
In the year 1926, Dali made his first trip to Paris, where he returned shortly after. In the French capital, he came into contact with artistic environments, in which he met figures such as Picasso, Paul Éluard and Tristán Tzara. His arrival in the city of the Seine coincided with the time of maximum fullness of the surrealist movement, which was already known through the works of the painter Tanguy, published in the magazine Minotaure. The term surrealism was used for the first time by Apollinaire, in 1917. Subsequently used writers in the likes of André Breton, author of the manifesto of surrealism, published in 1924, and by Paul Éluard it assiduously. This movement just got a resounding success, grouping in lathe of itself to a group of writers and artists interested in overcoming the prevailing external realism to reach deeper levels of reality, which will be searched and will be in the magical, in dreams, in the unconscious. Surrealism was the culmination of the exploration of the Interior of human mysteries; as an undressing before the reality.
History of Surrealism was far away, especially in early 19th century painters, who tried an approach to the powers of the dream, as thus demonstrated painters like Francisco de Goya y Lucientes Spanish and French Odilon Redon. Centuries ago also suggests a certain touch of Surrealism in the delirious by Hieronymus Boschpaintings. But surrealism of early 20th century differed from those primitive art forms in that it was a formula consciously sought by artists, born and nurtured in the philosophical and scientific environment of authors such as Bergson, Freud or Jung. In the purely artistic field, we find its immediate antecedents in Rousseau, Chagall and Chirico, and especially all the artists of Dada, arising school in the Swiss city of Zurich, during the first world war, and which had very important influence in the subsequent century artistic manifestations, as intended, not criticism or denial of such or which artistic manifestation, but those of art and culture as such. The essential Dada as the immediate forerunner of Surrealism was that it proposed the total destruction of all realistic and rational conventionalism in art, so it opened huge expectations and field of action to the young and enthusiastic artists coming back. Since 1924, this search was already aware and programmatic within the surrealist movement. The manifesto released by André Bretón proposed, without doubts or ambiguities the "pure psychic automatism, outside of any control exercised by reason". In the year 1925 was presented to the public the Group of surrealist painters: Chirico, Arp, Ernst, Paul Klee, Joan Miró, Man Ray... with posterity were joined by Picabia, Duchamp, Magritte, etc.
Salvador Dalí wasn't long to join the Group of surrealists in an enthusiastic and immediate way. In the year 1929 was quickly accepted, endorsed by the film that had made the previous year, together with Luis Buñuel a perro andaluz, and also a series of pictures representing a real average release anxieties and traumas of the artist; that they were many. Dalí became, quickly, at the head of one of the currents of surrealism, the figurative, which was based on the representation of appearances normal, using the conventions of the Renaissance perspective, but submitting objects to partnerships and relations at all absurd and delirious, and resulting in works dramatically dreamlike, equipped with a powerful emotion and amazement.
Without a doubt, the stage that Dalí spent within the surrealist movement was the most creative and original of the painter. It was when he painted his greatest works, putting them into practice what he himself called his paranoiac-critical method, defined by the painter as a vehicle or medium spontaneous of irrational knowledge based on the interpretativo-critica Association of delusional phenomena, and that expressed in the Association paranoid = white, and critic = hard, as well shows his great painting the persistence of memorywhere clocks, as soft or melted figures appear represented spatial elements such as hard, and the storms, in this case. They are images produced not so much by the effect of sleep, as per the search lucid photograph the own dream. They will be pictures that is dominated by an immediate taste for the sickly and repellent, by sexual obsessions that are closely linked to the conclusions of Freud. His brushes reflected a distorted and aberrant, world of elements repeatedly repeated in endless tracts of land, illuminated by a light burning and dazzling, making scenes imbued with mystery and anxiety.
All of these features are perfectly reflected in works such as the lugubrious game (a work dedicated to the topic of castration), the great masturbator, the invisible man, part hallucination six apparitions of Lenin on a piano (that are compositional clarity of Dali beside a delusional fantasy of the subconscious, focused on a repeated face of Lenin).
Finally, in 1934 he was expelled from the surrealist movement by own André Bretón, tired of the continuous eccentricities of the catalan painter and his somewhat retrograde technique. However, Dalí maintained the practice of explicit surrealism for several more years. When analyzing the work and career of Dali, we must never forget that the determining factor of his paintings is its own character self-centered and prone to obsessive exaggeration.
The arrival of the painter to the surrealist ranks had greatly revitalized the movement, thanks to great novelty which represented to the public their constant inventions that were also expressed with realistic language that enabled him to describe the mental world of our century in completely everyday terms (phones, watches, pianos). However, and although surrealism is always supported in total freedom of expression of its artists, the peculiar personality of Salvador Dalí, extravagant and desirous of prominence, urged him soon deviate from the group to maintain an independent activity and thus be the sole and exclusive character of their fabulous artistic world, the only Center of attention and gravitation.
The works of the years prior to the second world war were characterized by delve further into the personal paranoiac-critical method, creating a delirious, phantasmagoric and mind-blowing, particular world in which Dali not only sought to achieve verisimilitude but also the dissimilarity, making match seemingly irreconcilable objects. Perhaps his best-known work from this time was soft construction with boiled beans: premonition of civil war, picture this truly prophetic that the foreign members of the represented figure symbolize the horror of the violence caused by the war. The triviality of the first part of the title contrasts with great emotional impact that produces his contemplation, although the artist kept apart from any definite political attitude.
In the year 1948 Dalí returned to Spain after a long season in the United States of America. Salvador Dalí, who had always done gala and ostentation of its sacrilegious, blasphemous and revolutionary character, surprised friends and strangers with surprising assertion to become Catholic, Apostolic and Roman, as well as a fervent admirer of Francisco Franco and a supporter of the more traditional ways of painting. At this time, Dali turned into renew his never hidden admiration and devotion to the great geniuses of the painting universal, as Miguel Ángel, Leonardo, Rafael, Vermeer , and Velázquez. It gave started that way, to a new stage that some critics have described as mystical and pseudoclasica. This amazing religious, full of mysticism and meditation, phase was characterized by focusing on the broad themes of Christianity, reflected in works such as the madonna of Port Lligat, the crucified of San Juan de la Cruz, Santiago Apostle, the last supper... In all these works we can observe how the previous amazing visions give way to a pseudoacademicista conception defined by a precise realism and a meticulous technique that allowed Dali show their indisputable value of cartoonist. However, it never ceased entirely symbolic language, as indelible imprint of his surrealist past. Dali, at this time, scorned the anecdotal elements to present us a nude scenes of details, above all where reigned a profound mystical feeling enhanced by a clear and bright light. These compositional details gave its new pictures look unreal and divine.
From the 1960s, Dalí started a final period in which exhausted his inventive genius, fell on the repetition of their previous cosmetic formulas, and in which their blatant interest in marketing subtracted validity to the greater part of his artistic production. Critical interest in his work was decreasing because of a laborious academic vacuum that walked away you from modernity. Anyway, its activity was incessant in painting, illustration of books and jewelry design. Dalí always maintained his popularity, also driven by the various retrospective exhibitions that have dedicated with the inauguration of the Dalí Museum in Figueras, and by membership in the Academy of fine arts, French, also of by the continuous self-advertising making in all sorts of media, through increasingly unlikely actions that were feeding the myth that it was the artist himself.
The last years of his life devoted them to what the artist called hipertereoscopica painting in four dimensions. A long illness ended his life, January 23 of the year 1989, at his home in Figueras.
The first pictorial demonstration of Salvador Dali's talent dates back to the year 1915, when with just eleven years painted Dutch Interior, theme taken from a postcard, where she revealed a talent out of the ordinary. The picture was made with real flair, with a touch of diffuse but able to build forms, its warm atmosphere, the essence of the scene. In 1922 he painted still life, where Dalí already represents a world and a reality influenced by the great masters of the avant-garde painting of the moment, such as Cézanne, where he was inspired to give shape to this work. Dali tried to grasp the sensitivity of the Impressionists, the technique of pointillism, very much in vogue at that time, even made some sketches of what would later become the futurism and Fauvism. In this time of transition, Dalí drank from all sources possible, modern or past, who had traveled to Europe.
In 1923 he painted his scene of cabaret, more example of this stage scores, but ones loaded with absolute dexterity scores. The work was already fully imbued by the atmosphere of Central European expressionist Dadaism. Dali showed its commitment in joining the radical avant-garde that shook Europe with this painting. That same year he also painted Cubist self-portrait, in which attempted to condense haste teachings provided by his contact with the great painter from Malaga, Pablo Picasso, and Braque, but also Italian Severini, who had practiced in Italy Futurism and Cubism in Paris. In this work, Dali together perfectly the volume, shape and movement. As one can see, Salvador Dalí seemed a real sponge when it comes to feeding on any artistic movement that interested him.
Between the years 1924-27, Dalí experimented with so-called painting Verismo, in works such as portrait of his father and portrait of Luis Buñuel, where executed a few hard contours, cool colors and spacers, objectives, but full of a strange seduction; all this as a legacy of German magic realism or the melancholy metaphysical landscapes of the Italian painters were offering after the futuristic tumult.
In the same year 1927, Dali returned to give a twist to your style, to paint his Cubist still life in the moonlight. In this work Dali captured the terminally of cubism, when this already derived towards an assessment of the color and large decorative areas to the detriment of pure line. But, at the end of that same year, Dalí met of face to face with surrealism. Works as honey is sweeter than blood, Cenicitas, inaugural chicken and appliance and hand, Dali showed strong willingness to explore all possible sensitivity paths through surrealism. They are filled with pictures of soft, bloody, shapes that float in an atmosphere of terrifying diaphaneity. Also abound the bone or visceral, rotten ways. All these works are the birth of a plastic mythology product of dreams, alloyed with visual information on painters and their own obsessions as Ives Tanguy or Giorgio de Chirico gave him magazines. In 1928 he painted the rotten ass, where also reflected one of his recurring themes, made with a sensibility closer to abstraction and to the estimation of the "mater", which shows the influence of some of the works of the surrealist Max Ernst.
In the year 1929 he painted the great masturbator, work that represents his artistic maturity. The ability to implement the sensations, the torment of conventional morality or the Association of images that Freudian psychoanalysis was consecrating is prodigious. Dalí took such a transformation not only painting, but also in his literary writings, in its various film units and in his role as agitator in conferences, events and exhibitions. His solo exhibitions or their participation in programmatic samples of Surrealism multiplied during the 1930s. Dalí was an unsurpassed master to bring out different Visual mythologies still remaining in the cultural conscience of the West, thus associating his painting with the most intimate part of ourselves. Works such as Guillermo Tell, the invisible man, a complexion unhealthy to listening to the sound of the sea, perfectly reflected much of these universal myths.
In the year 1929, Dalí had an encounter with Paul Eluard and his wife Gala that would decisively mark the artistic and vital path rear of the catalan painter. Éluard and Gala were two keys that would open you the door to the future. The first of their access to the surrealist group; the second, that of his later life. That same year he immortalized them in two separate portraits. To Éluard dipped it in a pond of symbols, including its careta-autorretrato, the lion of the libido, tingly desire ants or locusts that display contact prior to orgasm surrounded you by an atmosphere full of premonitions. Symbols similar to those that appear in the portrait of Gala, significantly entitled imperial monument to the child-woman, showing a gala designed to redeem the painter of his obsessions, embodied by such recurrent anyway that, over time, forged a universal language. The total realization of all these obsessions, especially those of sexual nature, showed them Dali in two of his masterpieces, the lugubrious game and Tower of pleasure, showing a Dalí always painful sexuality, frustrated, dissatisfied and hard calmable. Ejaculation, masturbation, terrified and unsatisfied desire which is not able to deviate from the repugnancia-atraccion by all rotten, by blood and even droppings and a voracity of type quasi Cannibal. They are pictures made with an unsurpassed master, with a technique on the incredible light, which learned of the Flemish painters who studied student while in Madrid, visiting the Museum of the Prado. They are ghostly images, Yes, but executed with an impeccable and impressive realism. In 1931 he painted perhaps his most famous picture, the persistence in memory, with a Dali morphed into the great masturbator who sleeps peacefully at the foot of several soft watches.
But without a clear commitment to the drama that was unfolding in Spain, due to the Civil War, Dali could not stop feeling in his painting the tension of the moment is coming and the horror of a contest between brothers. Its construction soft cooked beans: premonition of civil war, of the year 1937, came already announcing in compositions, or sketches earlier painter, dating from the year 1934, and give visual form to all the accumulated tension in the Spanish society of the time, as it happens with his other work cannibalism in autumn of the year 1936-37.
In 1937 he painted the enigma of Hitler, work in which the painter showed the ethical course from which Dali would interpret the surrounding world. Dali took the rise of German national socialism just by the way esthetic, morbid, without showing any political significance. In the enigma without end, of the year 1938, Dali became, if possible, anamorfosica delirious and complex composition. Fabric shows Freud, Gala, a dog, a horse, a lying figure, a mandolin and other multiple, intertwining without solution of continuity on the stage of the landscape. It is an authentic paranoico-asociativo delirium, taken to its ultimate consequences. The importance of the work shown in the numerous versions of the work. Atomic melancholy, painted in the year 1945, Dali showed a few touched the terrifying spectacle of the conflict looks. Painting alludes directly to the nuclear bombing and its consequences on the defenceless civilian population. Baseball allusion is to North America; areas that burst as buboes pests make reference to the same men. Finally, the melancholic face of the central figure composed his features with the silhouette of a bombardment, wrapped in an atmosphere of total destruction, with the reloj-tiempo become sore sex. The picture seems to be a sort of altar dedicated to the disappearance of the human race. It is perhaps this time Dali more pessimistic and withdrawn.
The grenade was always a fruit whose image for Dali was a constant concern, as demonstrated by his work, of the year 1944, dream caused by the flight of a bee around a pomegranate, where is the own interior which opens completely, is freeing the hidden passions and sex shows greed, ferocity and cold point of a hurtful hidden awareness penetration.
In the dalinian path basket of bread, painted in 1945, said a reunion with the origin and the timeless tradition. It is from this time when his painting retrieves descriptive accuracy and verisimilitude, momentarily away from the surrealist deformations. Atomic Leda, painted in 1949, is an idolatrous portrait of Gala, capital of this moment of transformation, after which his painting will track the myths of the classical world, of geometric and symbolic thought of the Renaissance, of the rigor of optical laws, symbolized in some way by these planoconvexas lenses work. His beloved Gala, definitely, had become the only moral and religious reference of the painter. Dali is tipped with real fervor in the mystical and classic, as in the work of the Virgin of Port Lligat, the year 1949, that is but a portrait precise venerated Gala, idolatry of reality on the one hand, morbid sexualization of religion on the other hand, in a daring fusion of opposite concepts. His rafaelesca head which explodes, the year 1951, is one of the best examples of this use of symbolic elements of the dazzling culture of the Italian Renaissance. The head is transparent and we see centrifuge is an interior that alludes to the dome of Orange average with caissons, crucial element of architectural thought of the great classicists.
Dali, imbued in a mystic, classical atmosphere never forgot completely their whims surreal, as is the case with his explosive painting young virgin auto-sodomized by the horns of her own chastity, of the year 1954, where returned to the theme of the girl out the window, but with a load of spectacular eroticism. The theme of the Horn of the Rhinoceros, with popular tradition of aphrodisiac substance, serves for a visual Carom between muslo-cuerno - penis-masturbation anal-floating in space. It is a kind of ironic backlash in times of that imperial and monarchist Catholicism that caused to the public in the definition itself.
In 1954 he painted his Crucifixion, hipercubico body work that showed a flawless realization of academic virtuosity. It is a spatial and deep, floating above an obsessively geometrical cross Christ. Gala appears at the foot of Calvary, overlapping on itself the roles of Virgin and San Juan Evangelista in a kind of bisexual synthesis.
The idea of death was always present in the intellectual and aesthetic ideology of Dali. In 1954 he painted the skull of Zurbarán, homage to the great painter Extremadura, connecting more even with the constants of the Spanish traditional mysticism, whose topics exploited shamelessly Dali during these years. Portrait of my brother died, in the year 1963, Dali painted his brother, dead until he was born, also becoming a myth that reflects the region of death, doubly distressing, because it means the disappearance of what even has been known.
His work my wife naked, watching her own body becomes steps, three vertebrae of a column, sky and architecture, painted in New York in 1945, was auctioned in December 2000 in the Sotheby's of London House for 779 million pesetas. An anonymous buyer paid the highest amount so far by a work of the artist.
Without a doubt, the painting was the backbone of the artistic activity of Salvador Dalí. But since its first years the expression of his ideas, his aesthetic feelings, or even advertising of its own existence as artist, channeled through the most diverse cultural formulas.
Poetry, prose, the autobiographical text, the theoretical or manifesto, as the catalan anti-artistic Manifesto (1928), were print media which cultivated with relish. He wrote "Moral position of Surrealism", "Rotten ass" and "Dreams", articles published in 1930 and 1931 in Helios magazines and Surrealism in the service of the revolution, as well as several more in the magazine Minotauro. He wrote the novel and poetry, always within the channels of surrealism, with titles like secret life (1942), hidden faces (1944) and the tragic myth of Millet's Angelus (1963).
In November 2003, the Gala-Salvador Dalí Foundation initiated the publication of the complete literary works of Salvador Dalí in eight volumes. After the two first volumes, devoted to the painter's autobiographical work, the third volume, dedicated to his poetry, narrative works and texts for theatre and cinema appeared in September 2004. [The news that the Foundation Gala-Salvador Dalí had bought a manuscript of an unpublished play to date based on the tragic myth of the angelus by Millet and which is entitled Admosferic-Animals-Tragédie; is a stage version of his paranoiac-critical interpretation of the work of Millet, was published in December 2005 and whose protagonists are a mother and her son who talk about their sexual perversions.]
He also cultivated the 3-d arts, it either under the traditional concept of sculpture or composing objects to the way in which Dadaists and surrealists had done so. Also the design in its entirety was the subject of their dedication: furniture, jewels, bottles of perfume and drinks, advertising posters... In relation to the graphic arts, its production was overflowing, with engravings, illustrations for books, lithographs.
A chapter apart and fundamental was the participation of Dalí in the world of the show, which made sets and costumes by numerous plays, operas and ballets. Especially, it should be noted his participation in the cinema, for which collaborated with figures of both relief and his friend Luis Buñuel, the Marx Brothers, Hitchcock and even Walt Disney. These contributions to cinema were brief and sporadic, but left a great mark on the so-called seventh art, with unforgettable milestones as the surrealist film par excellence who filmed with Buñuel in 1929, Un Chien Andalou. Indeed, to highlight the relationship of Dalí with the cinema, the society of cultural commemorations, the Gala-Salvador Dalí Foundation and Talent Television produced in 2004 (coinciding with the centenary of the birth of the artist) a feature film with the title of Dalimatografo, which showed the evolution of this relationship from his childhood up to his obsession with the last years of life to capture everything on celluloid.
Despite the numerous surreal artists and the richness and variety of nuances of movement, among the general public Salvador Dalí's work has always been, if not the most prominent, yes one of those most identified with surrealism. Therefore if any contributions and stages of the protagonists of this lively and popular "ISM" of the historical avant-garde merit certain emphasis and clarification (which, at the time, illustrate the importance and significance of its presence and opportunity in the Group), that is without a doubt of the cited catalan painter, about everything which took place during the period in which went together with the Parisian surrealist groupthat art was far more epic and daring of the painter. Chronologically, this period comprised between the arrival in Paris in 1929 of the suburban and his final expulsion from the group, consummate ten years later. It must, therefore, recapitulate some lines on the baggage with which started and unstoppable trajectory Dalí, already be seen before that time.
Dali, from the Catalan bourgeoisie, had become that Madrid at the age of seventeen to become. He moved to the prestigious Residencia de Estudiantes, where he lived, as already mentioned before, with Federico García Lorca, Luis Buñuel, José Moreno Villa and other restless creators, and entered the school of the Royal Academy of fine arts of San Fernando, where he was finally expelled in 1926. At the same time, in 1925, it had participated in Madrid in the important exhibition of Iberian artists, where the incipient Spanish avant-garde received its first impulse really significant and important, and he held his first solo exhibition at the Dalmau Gallery in Barcelona, to travel to the next year (after the expulsion) to Paris, where he visited Picasso. Meanwhile, meteoric career Dali assimilated more diverse influences local and foreign (Impressionism, the ultraísmo, Cubism, Futurism, Italian metaphysics, etc.) into surrealism.
In 1927 exhibited in Barcelona the honey is sweeter that blood, considered his first work, surreal and, the following year, published with Sebastià Gasch and Lluís Montanyà Manifest or the Manifest groc antiartistic Català, which is attacking the traditional Catalan culture in favor of the esprit nouveau and modernism, although at the end of the year he returned to Pariswhere he came into contact with the surrealists and collaborated with Buñuel in the script of the film a chien andalou (an Andalusian dog).
Thus, in this emblematic 1929, in the midst of the scandal caused by the presentation of this pioneering film (masterpiece of Surrealism) and the celebration in the Galerie Goemans of his first Paris solo exhibition (where hung realizations as striking as the great masturbator, the lugubrious game, the illumined pleasures or the accommodations of desire), Dalí was finally installed in the gala capital and is fully integrated into the surrealist group.
The famous year in which Barcelona and Seville is inaugurated, respectively, Universal exhibitions and Ibero-American (see Expo); in New York the crash of the stock market (see Crisis of 1929) and the opening of the Museum of Modern Art gave way, on the one hand, to an acute economic depression (soon exported to Europe) and, secondly, to the avant-garde art museum sanction; When in Paris the surrealists published his second manifesto of surrealism; that 1929, which will put an end to the appearance happy, frivolous, and over twenty years, was also the year of the establishment of Salvador Dali in Paris and their inclusion in the select French surrealist group.
The suburban came backed to these surrealist by a highly unsettling solo show, as it was which had opened in November in this gallery of Goemans, presented works of great impact, by the way of the great masturbator, one of the most commented upon and well-known. The outstanding success of this sample public, had also been supported in a previous scandal: Dalí, responsible for the script, together with Luis Buñuel, who was responsible for the direction, had opened in October of that year, Studio 28, the turbulent and surprising film a chien andalou, considered (must insist) as the first and most accomplished Surrealist film. Dalí, consequently already had free passage between the Parisian surrealists and soon a great fabric freshener turnaround to surrealism with the realization of which called "paranoiac-critical method".
Indeed, the French surrealist group, to this date, was located in a double crisis, both aesthetic and moral, and the arrival in this context of Dali, which has been called "reflective period" of the movement, which had occupied the second half of the 1920s ended. However, thanks to the aforementioned paranoiac-critical method developed, the suburban opened new research perspectives to surrealism in the 1930s; Yes well, in terms of the moral, the rise of fascism and the tense international situation lived long of the new decade, which it called more than never to commitment and intellectual and artistic, politicization did not but aggravate the situation and the divisions in the group.
I.e. by the aesthetic and artistic side, while the options offered by the movement were varied, from the first exhibition of the surrealists, held at the gallery Pierre in Paris in 1925, as noted the own Pope of surrealism, André Breton, roads that opened were mainly two: the psychic automatism and the expression of dreams, which were then the two large compartments in which, traditionally, is has been dividing the work of the protagonists of the movement, although in fact both cover a wide range of possibilities.
In this way, the path of the system, as well as the adaptation of literary games and plastics society (like, from 1925, the so-called by the surrealist exquisite corpse, based on random and fun factor to transcend reality and explore the unexpected and consistent in the joint realization of a phrase or drawing by juxtaposed individual contributionswithout mutual knowledge and the bootstrapper), between the long and striking new methods developed race, highlight the early works of André Masson, who, in the winter of 1923-1924, produced a series of drawings in pencil and pen (and, later, some paintings "arena") which are among the most purely automatic works of surrealism. But also Max Ernst, after their experiences with the collage, in 1925 discovered the technique of the frottage or rubbing, (consisting of scrubbing with a charcoal or pencil on paper to register the texture of the material, which would have previously been under, and thus achieve an unprecedented image), insisting on the analogy of this method with the automatic writing. In addition, your experiences with this procedure led him to discover, around 1927, the grattage or scrape (technique based on a pictorial surface spread several layers of color that once dry are scraped haphazardly, getting unexpected forms defined by the stratified color and the abrupt final texture). Even culminating their research based on the principles of automatism, in 1942 invented technique called Swing (let drip the paint on the canvas from a can bore and balanced on a string), anticipadora of the dripping and the American action painting. However, already by then be explored many other techniques that emerged in the 1930s, as the Spanish Óscar Domínguez was invented in 1935 decalcomania (by which is compressing two papers or canvas impregnated with creamy paint, emerging to separate them unexpected and interesting images); Wolfgang Paalen Austrian, two years later, he had found the technique of the fumage (consisting of pass the smoke of a candle on a freshly painted surface and then to interpret the traces left by the smoke with the brush) or Stephen French, also Spanish, from 1937 had perfected the procedure of the grattage (Ernst only used it to obtain certain effects of matter and transferring the effects of the frottage in the oil painting drawing; but it was French(, who used a razor blade to work the upper paint layer, so that the lower arise unexpected forms, creating glare and iridescent, who credited it as a comprehensive method of automatic provenance).
Similarly, the operator served some of these painters and others, as particularly evidenced in the case of Joan Miró, to release his work from the narrowness of Orthodox figurative style and delve into the world of dreams and fantasy child and popular. However, we must also consider, as shown in the same production of Miró, as it is the case along the Max Ernst or Jean Arp, members of the Parisian surrealist group, which will not be able to delimit rigidly in surrealist art the path of automation and the dreams, since sometimes mixed up in the same work, either your patchwork warns in the whole of the production of the artist, presenting different stages marked by one or the other way.
Despite these qualifications, together with the operator, was also evident among the surrealist artists the señoreo of another option: "painting of dreams" or its equivalent of the concretion of irrationality, executed through a predominantly illusionistic technique. This does not mean that these creators are limited to warfare to the vigil or the reason, then transcribe, merely, the world of dreams, and the unconscious. A clear case of the richness of the trail was the painting of Yves Tanguy, joined the group in 1925 and whose characteristic landscapes, rather than moving a few dreams, seemed to try to bring to the canvas the reverie of a few Interior panoramas. Also, within this surreal domain, painting by René Magritte, who joined the surrealist two years later, is puzzling. It is not now as in Tanguy, private reveries, but questioning the bases in which is based the relationship between the real and the painted and underline, using the surprise or the juxtaposition, its inconsistencies. However, although joined the surrealists when the Decade was coming to an end, no doubt is Dalí's work which best reflects, with its care illusionistic realism (perfectly conjugable fundamental innovative contribution of the mentioned "paranoiac-critical method," which now speak), this way of Surrealism in its double aspect of "sleep" and "irrationality"; having managed, even, that his work was that the general public identified with the movement.
In summary, therefore, at the end of the second five years of the 1920s, the world of surreal images, at first sight, seemed to have developed his research and finalized its results in two branches, which divided it. On the one hand, that of images more organic or biomorphic, from experimenting with the automation system and the spontaneous reactions (as in the work of Masson, Miro and the greater part of the Max Ernst), whose logical course seemed to be directed toward abstraction. On the other hand, the branch of realism or naturalism, more descriptive and representative, whose research had been focusing on the world of the dreamlike images and visual metaphors (such as occurs in the production of Tanguy, Magritte and Dalí) and that would open the way to exploring the future figurative options. Before the public majority, therefore identified with surrealism creations of the latter than of the former; However, against the insistence, realistic, momentum, the freedom and the strength of the first choice lent greater creative base to expressionist abstraction, which would soon arrive and imposed.
In any case, at that time, when the Decade of the twenties came to an end, both one as another way, thematically and technically, seemed to have reached the limit of what they could give of themselves, plunging to surrealist art in a real crisis, in need of new formulas and revitalizing ideas that would come from the hand of new members added to the Parisian surrealist group. At this opportune moment occurred sonada arrival of Salvador Dalí already referred to.
But his most important contribution to the movement was not the triumphal entry that contributed you film and the exhibition of 1929, but innovation that brought his "paranoiac-critical" method, defined thereafter. The newly incorporated and its proposals, quickly acted on formulas and surreal artistic habits as a real shock. Dalí, in essence, proposed with his new method, based on the adaptation of the work on the paranoia of the young psychiatrist Jacques Lacan, replace the passive condition of the hallucinations autoinducidas, driven by the surrealists, paranoid and active action of the mind, which would extract the unconscious images of such a force which, in turn, affect on this. I.e. I had to convert the overall irrationality of dreams and automatic processes in specific and systemic irrationality of paranoid delirium that dream survives and is projected in the reality.
Paranoiac-critical activity, defined by Dalí himself as "a method of spontaneous of irrational knowledge based on the interpretativo-critica Association of delirious phenomena", incorporated into the surrealist creation potential of delirious new aspects and symbolic evocation that also enabled the analogies and the unexpected transposition. Hence, the openness to innovative surrealist experiences not only in painting, but also in the field of the production of objects, spaces or venues ambience and filmmaking. Although, it also assumed risks, as the accusation of cause too "literary" creations or transgressions in the political and ideological that starred the same Dali.
But the crisis of surrealism, the arrival of suburban painter, was two-fold, as stated above, also taking a moral aspect. Within the latter, the issue of the political commitment of the group, as it could not be otherwise in a decade and with a few members so strongly politicized, was the most important and one of the major problems in its interior. In fact, it was quite difficult to combine the twin objectives of surrealist explore and liberate the creative unconscious, on the one hand, and formulate a policy of practical action which aims to improve society, on the other. In fact, since, in the mid-1920s, the surrealists had begun to participate in the political activities of the French left (almost all had been nearing communism), the question of political action was the main source of disputes in the group.
In fact, in 1926, Breton had published in Paris a booklet entitled Légitime Défense, where stated that surrealism was ready to help the proletarian revolution, although he insisted that the surrealists had to retain its independence. And, while this was not guaranteed, he and several other surrealists joined the French Communist Party the following year. But also the political events in the Soviet Union itself also came to affect the surrealists, especially between 1928 and 1929 was consummated the expulsion by the Stalinists of Trotsky, admired by Breton and his direct followers, and Moscow decided to control the activities of the surrealists, who then reaffirmed their commitment to the third international and the French Communist Partygiving evidence of that with the inauguration of a new phase of what until then had been their organ of expression, the magazine La Révolution Surréaliste, whose last number was published in December of 1929, containing the second manifesto of surrealism. This text, in reality, was a clear reaction to the crisis situation in which was the movement, but a reaction that Breton was intended to take advantage of to make inner cleansing and appealed to the political struggle, which, in relation to the exhibition and confirmation of the creative principles, was given an importance disproportionate to the allegations and questioning the morality of its members. As a result, with such approaches was also the same title adopted for the publication which would open up the new phase of the Group: Le Surréalisme au service de la révolution, highly illustrative of the new direction of the "ISM", which, at this point, is put at the service of the revolution, the double aspect of opposition both to imperialism, in favor of the social, as to the revolutionaries themselves (if necessary) to defend the same surrealism.
Meanwhile, they arreciaban the divisions within the surrealist group, since its members often were forced to choose not only between the collective group experience and the individual artists, but also between political commitment and creative freedom. Thus, at the height of 1930, as he recalled D.D. Egbert (1981, pag.284), the revitalizing incorporation of artists like Dali, more concerned about introducing surrealism personal methods that revolutionary responsibilities, or related position so expensive to surrealism as Freud, who in that year published his book the discomfort of culture (where maintained that psychology, Marxism was unsustainable)they didn't but deepen the divisions. In addition, surrealists such as Louis Aragon and Georges Sadoul, were captured for the Stalinist communism and denounced Trotskyism and contained in the Freudianism idealism, which was viewed by the group as a betrayal. It was very difficult, yet avoid taking position or make it and not crash. The triumph in 1933 of Hitler in Germany; the formation of the French Popular Front in 1934; the International Congress of writers in defense of culture against fascism (held in 1935 in Paris, with new editions in London and Valencia in the following years); the outbreak and development of the Spanish Civil war between 1936 and 1939. the side Pact of 1939; the second world war; etc., were highlighted as many events that required the positioning of the surrealists and which, again, gave occasion to the confrontations and divisions to the forms of action.
On the other hand, in parallel with new additions such as the Dali, which always had the movement as a impremeditadamente controller of its ranks, the described process of politicization of surrealism, increased since the mid-1920s, at the same time he was giving rise to a series of expulsions and autoexclusiones (generally raised by intransigence and authoritarianism bretonianos and executed in a passionate and stormy way) that continued throughout the history of the movementwhich became such an integral part of the identity of Surrealism actions. Among the artists, cases of Masson and Dali, undoubtedly, are among those who best exemplify such ruptures.
The first one dates back to 1928, date in which André Masson already kept its distance with the surrealist group, citing psychological and aesthetic arguments. When, at the beginning of 1929, Breton invited the surrealists to choose between an individual activity or a collective political action, some answers, as the Masson, already reflected a final rupture violently expressed in the second manifesto.
As Dalí, on the other hand, it was not an opt-out, or there would not be a friendly reunion, as he returned to join Breton and Masson in 1936. In addition, the expulsion of the catalan painter, whose antics came to cause to own surrealism (such provocative move himself), in reality did not materialize until 1939, despite having been judged in 1934. Before even of the latter date, the Communists had expressed to the surrealist group their suspicions about the admiration Hitler felt Dali, whose representations of Lenin, was also unorthodox. And, indeed, Dalí, who in 1931 had already evoked the politician in his six appearances of Lenin on a piano box, in 1933 launched the enigma of Guillermo Tell (the first part of the title, in French, was playing with the pronunciation of Lenin), work that exhibited in the Salon des Indépendants and which showed the Russian leader kneelingexcluded, played with a long CAP, no pants and with a huge and elongated buttock that rested on a crutch.
This seemed intolerable to Breton, who, despite the prior purpose of amendment Dali, in February 1934, convened the group in his studio with a letter that said: "agenda: having found guilty to Dalí various insolence of counter-revolutionary acts aimed at the glorification of the Nazi fascism, the undersigned [Breton, Ernst, Herold, Hugnet, Meret Oppenheim, Peret and Tanguy] proposed [despite the statement of January 25] excluding from the surrealism as a fascist and" fight it by all means". The trial gave Dali the chance to mount a large number, which contained a humorous staging, which was intended to fend off the accusation by invoking the surreal nature of his interest in Hitler, insisting that it was limited to transcribe their dreams. The session ended without any agreement and, in the following days, the French right-wing uprising (which ended up being countered with formation in July of the Popular Front) claimed the attention of the surrealists, which helped that Dalí's expulsion would be suspended.
This well-known episode of the Dali biography is highly illustrative of the situation that existed and the moments that were crossing the surrealists, and whether or not Dalí at the height of the circumstances, the truth is that the suburban, as an artist and theoretician, had given so much (at least) as it had received from the surrealist group. The latter, indeed, had been installed in a permanent crisis, because of these continuous collision on political commitment and morale of the movement. His reflection clear observed difficult relations of cooperation maintained with the French Communist Party (as Breton objected to so closely associate you drown the independence of surreal action), both cited internal divisions and these excommunications, promoted by the "Pope" of surrealism, although there was always reunion and lax applications, as in the case of Dali. But also this situation in the background had been having a brilliant counterweight with the rejuvenation that accounted for some additions, starting with the of Dalí himself, whose marriage to the surrealist group in 1929 had immediately provoked a real subversion of habits and artistic formulations of plastic, a survivor group purges he was being subjected.
During the 1930s, was developed, the central phase of the Dali art, which also gave of himself to publish various writings and engage with texts, illustrations and plastic work in surrealist exhibitions and several publications. However, among the varied activity of Dali, in 1930 there to have his new collaboration with Buñuel in the Age d'Or film, financed by the vicomte de Noailles and whose religious irreverence and harassment to bourgeois values would result in a new scandal since its premiere.
The following year, with its famous square, the persistence of memory (or soft watches), Dalí presented a finished test of his meticulous illusionistic realism and its paranoid inventions. Through the virtuosity in the figurative technique and embarrassing and transmutation of substances and their role, with unusual ideation and presentation of State and context of this everyday machinery, encouraged, distorted and confused in an image, dreamlike intentions, the organic and the inanimate, presenting as a true visual image of some unexpected watches that were adapted to the "furniture" as imaginary as evocative of Cadaqués landscape. A landscape that also inserted obsessive fixations dalinian, already appeared in the great masturbator, the lugubrious game, or the portrait of Paul Eluard, like ants from one of the watches or head that supported the nose against the floor, alluding to his obsession one by death and putrefaction, from the other (through the aforementioned canvases of 1929) of previous self-portraits of profilewhich marked new autobiographical implications.
Is true that Dalí always expressed his obsession with the soft and organic distortions, whose presence came to almost become a constant in their production of these years. Thus he became, for example, in soft construction with boiled beans. Premonition of civil war (1936), remarkable work where to put the procedure and the obsession at the service of the monumental representation of a few horrors the conflict referred to by its subtitle would soon raise. However, it is not less true that the whole of the Dali painting, was (and is) too premeditated and intellectualized as to merely be from hallucination and delusional phenomena. In fact, this painting was a deliberate staging of the own Dali psychological state induced by your own readings and knowledge of psychology.
It would be difficult, otherwise, see outside this framework another obsession, as the sexual relationship, widely present in the dalinian production. In this way, both in his works about the Angelus by Millet, the suburban interpreting as an image of repressed sexuality, and those referring to the legend of Guillermo Tell, understood by the same artist as a myth of the castration, Dalí provided us the key interpretive of his unconscious with too much evidence, for not suspecting the degree of awareness of the representation. On the other hand, viewing of double or multiple images in a same representation, and among other works takes place in his oil slave market with the invisible bust of Voltaire (1940), where many central figures of the scene, in turn, make up the bust of the philosopher, that owes more to the visionary capacity of the artist and the preparation of its representation as a true reality to a rigorous application of the paranoiac-critical methodDalí attributed them to him.
His painting, no doubt, was a cultural, intellectualized product. Still, both its method, put at the service of dreamy searches, and then style, highly naturalistic (especially after its decision, in the late 1930s, strengthen its classicism), exerted over the Decade a great influence on other young painters, such as his compatriots Esteban Francés and Óscar Domínguez. However, in addition to the style and method (although partly due to the latter), among his most relevant contributions to surrealism, should also highlight their 'objects' and the capacity offered to interpret this type of works through its "symbolic function". Some of them were exhibited in 1936, in the important Exposition surréaliste d'objets de la Galerie Charles Ratton in Paris, made with the intention of making collective balance, in the field of possibilities of surrealist sculpture, and which marked the moment in which this kind of pieces started to achieve real international eco.
I.e., in relation to the painting and its surroundings, sculpture and his had its own problems, but found their specific answers. And that surrealism took her longer to discover the oneiric, random, free association, or the automatic procedure in a sculpture than a painting. The process of exploration that led to three-dimensional shapes to a range of equity (the less) with other surrealists, such as poetry and painting demonstrations, was, therefore, something slower, but steady and as much or more importance and significance than in the rest of the creative manifestations of the movement. However, this process, in fact, came from farther away, being intimately connected to the new understanding of the "object" and new consideration of his artistic entity.
In this sense, therefore, we must remember that, like the collage, the incorporation into the creative world of the "object", regardless of its material preparation, had started its journey on the eve of the first world war. Pablo Picasso, in 1912, had performed his guitar's brass and, a year later, Marcel Duchamp had executed his bicycle Rueda. In the work of the first, although there was a lot of irony, persisted the identification with what is meant by artistic creation, but in the ready-made of the second, this is (according to the definition this type of creations Duchamp), in the "usual object promoted to the dignity of art object by the simple choice of the artist", went above and beyond. Duchamp, in spite of these objects to use as anti-art (rather than as art, in the traditional sense), proclaimed that art was a matter of definition, and that creation could also be in the very act of manipulating or removed objects, things or ideas. Since then, the history of the object took place between these two conceptions, until surrealism, with its juxtapositions and his Poetics of unusual and incongruous, managed to unite both positions in a magnificent synthesis: the so-called "surrealist object".
Surrealism in the 1930s did not, therefore, but assume and complement the previous thinking about the object, especially the Dadaist. It used to do this, essentially the objet Trouvé or "found object", i.e., served creatively discarded, surprising or out of context objects or materials, and reempleó them with the intention of extending the field of relationships and the imagination in art. The objet Trouvé, thus, became the essential foundation for the definition of the surrealist object, which, in turn, was the most important contribution of this movement to the sculpture, assuming a new advance online exploration of object-based art, which effectively would reach a great development a few decades later.
Knowledge between public these surrealist investigations, however, did not begin to be really palpable until March 1926, when the Galerie Surréaliste in Paris presented the sample Tableaux of Man Ray Objets et des îles, where exposed, for the first time United, spirit paintings dada and primitive artworks from Oceania, whose "indecency" shocked the press and hooked to the avant-garde scene. The surrealist poetry of unusual was already underway. Perhaps before this success, in December of the same year, the magazine La Révolution Surréaliste announced an exhibition of "surrealist objects" that, actually took over ten years to arrive. During these, anyway, the theoretical activity continued advancing and defining great expectations that opened to the surrealist world this type of creation.
As well, in December 1931, Le Surréalisme au service de la révolution published the text of Dali "surrealist objects: general catalogue", in which it described the five objects of "symbolic operation", created by Albert Giacometti, Valentine Hugo, Breton, Gala Éluard and himself (in the framework of reflection also included Tanguy and Miró), as well as providing illustrations of objects they designed. The systematization suggested here by the suburban divided into different categories to the surrealist object, although he felt that all of them, in general, represented a weapon 'against the narrations of dreams and automatic writing". But, in reality, that Dali sought was the renovation of the old surrealist methods of automation through his paranoiac-critical system, which was trying to avoid passivity and repression, defending the aggressive intrusion into the world of desires by means of symbolic performance objects.
To such theoretical activity was added that of own Breton, who both in Brussels and in Prague, in 1934 and 1935, insisted, in writing and in lectures on the importance of the surrealist object, emphasizing (first capital) the importance of the "found object" and its role as catalyst in the creative development and advancing the notion of the "poema-objeto" (in the second). And, continuing his reflection on the object, in 1936 Breton expressed not only by the ready-made duchampians permanent interest, but he also published a famous text ("Crisis of the object", appeared in Cahiers d'art number 1-2), which marked the guidelines to implement the "total revolution of the object", which saw workable through the transformation of the role that came regularly fulfilling thisso that could be from the same perspective, for example, poetic objects and mathematicians.
At the same time, on-line exhibition, during the ten years in question, apart from some collective exhibitions of the surrealists with a presence that is interesting about this type of inserted objects between painting, little more was, though at 1936, at the same time that the quoted text of Breton appeared, this conceived the Exposition surréaliste d'objets, held at the Charles Ratton Gallerybetween 22 and 29 May. It was a show that, without a doubt, we can consider as the most important and transcendent dedicated up to then by the surrealists to the object in a specific way. Nearly two hundred, gathered grouped (a proposed bretoniana) in "mathematicians", "natural", "found and interpreted", "mobile", "irrational" and "wild or objects from America and Oceania", properly called "surreal", whose creation he had promoted among the artists own Breton-joined. All these objects, whatever their nomination or its category, participating in what Eluard is defined as the creation of a "Physics of poetry". Was not of objects decorative or utilitarian (actually, all decontextualized or without specific object could be a surrealist object); He tried to find his poetic side. From here, this kind of exhibitions began to be more general, as in