Biography of Izzat Muhammad Darwaza (1888-1939)

Palestinian politician, born in 1888 in Nablus and died in 1939, which was an important nationalist during the time of Ottoman, and founder of the secret organization domain al - Fatat.


Born in the bosom of a wealthy middle class family, after studying, Darwaza began working as an official post and telegraph in the Ottoman Empire, period in which gave start his nationalist political activities, always against the British rule over the area and the increasingly important Zionist movement.

At the beginning of the 20th century, from the young Turks revolution produced a new phase of Arab nationalism in the Ottoman Empire, phase that established a constitutional regime which was followed by a centralising, oppressive and abusive policy that did more than increase the widespread discontent of the Arab populations subjected by the Turks. In this context emerged a series of politico-cultural societies that have animated the spirit and Arab nationalist consciousness, among which highlighted the founded by Darwaza in the year 1911, Al - Fatat, whose immediate objectives spent to achieve the independence of Palestine and the unit in a common front of the rest of the Arab Nations to stand together against the Ottoman Empire or any other type of interference from outside, especially against Great Britain. The Organization of Darwaza, in collaboration with other societies of the same type (literary Club of Istanbul, Qahtania and al - Ahd), organized in Paris in 1913 an Arab national Congress raised demands, quite moderate, in favor of a progressive decentralization and autonomy rather than full independence. The leaders of the Congress, with Darwaza to head, negotiated with the young Turks an exit to the problem of territorial occupation, but without any positive results.

International support and the support of allies to the Arab nationalism as a whole occurred thanks to favorable world economy emerged after the outbreak of the first world war. Turkey intervened as an ally of the Central Empires (Germany and Austria-Hungary), which forced Western countries, mainly to Britain and France, to support and encourage nationalist movements full Arab. Darwaza collaborated with other prominent Palestinian leaders in the creation of the al - Jamiyya to Al - Filistinya (Palestinian society), forming a common front in defence of their rights of independence, which would be claimed immediately after the completion of the contest along with Syria.

During the first Congress Arab-Palestinian, held in Jerusalem in the year 1919, Darwaza fervently defended the idea of a sirio-palestina unit as the only effective measure of opposition to the secret covenants of Sykes-Picot, signed in may 1916 between France and Britain, that Arab countries would be divided into two zones of influence, British and French, who subsequently shape the future mandates. The Conference of San Remo, in the month of April of the year 1920, finally confided the domain of Palestine Britain domain which was ratified by the League of Nations on July 22, 1922.

Knowledge by the Arabs of the controversial Balfour Declaration, the progressive increase of Jews from around the world in Palestine and the establishment of the British mandate unleashed hostilities among the Palestinians, manifested in a series of riots and violence led by Darwaza.

The Palestinian nationalist movement was organized around the Arab Executive Committee, emerged from the third Congress Palestinian (meeting in Haifa in December of the year 1920, in which participated Darwaza on behalf of his native region of Nablus) and of the Muslim Supreme Council, headed by the mufti of Jerusalem Hadj Amine al - Hussein. Darwaza was elected member of the Arab Executive Committee between the years 1921 to 1928, to support unreservedly the nationalist faction more radical and uncompromising with respect to Great Britain and the Zionist movement, which was led by Hadj Amine al - Hussein, in contrast to the more moderate defended by Raguib al - Nasâsibi.

From the year 1933, as a result of the dramatic increase in the flow of Jewish immigrants to Palestine pushed for Nazism (in 1935, there were more than 350,000 Jews for a total population of just 150,000 Palestinians worldwide), the upheavals and anti-Jewish movements returned to play with more virulence if possible that in the past. Darwaza was the main organizer of the Palestinian uprising that was organized in 1936, which lasted until 1939. The movement started with a call to the general strike which caused the total cessation of Palestine, and that continued armed attacks against Jewish and British.

Darwaza died before beginning the second world war, but laid the groundwork for the start of the second phase of independence and nationalist Palestinian movement after the end of the war, adopted by its current leader, President of Palestine Yasser Arafat.


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