Biography of Jim Dine (1935-VVVV)

Painter stamper and creator of environments and American happenings. Born in 1935 in Cincinnati, Ohio. From 1953 to 1957 he/she studied at the University of Cincinnati and the Boston School of Fine and Applied Arts in Boston, Massachusetts. In 1957 he/she obtained the Bachelor of Fine Arts at Ohio University. In 1959 he/she moved to New York where he/she made his first happenings with Claes Oldenburg and Allan Kaprow at the Judson Gallery. In 1960, held his first solo exhibition at the Reuben Gallery, New York. From 1960 to 1964 was a visiting professor at various American universities, such as Yale (New Haven), and Oberlin College (Ohio). In 1964 he/she participated in the Venice Biennale and in 1968 in "documenta 4", Kassel. Since 1967, he/she teaches at the College of Architecture at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. He/She lives between New York and London.

Dine was a leading figure in the Pop Art in his country. The major American pop artists (Claes Oldenburg, James Rosenquist, Roy Lichtenstein, Rauschenberg and Andy Warhol) were totally different between them. Claes Oldenburg and Jim Dine were closest to the neo-Dada together with Tom Wesselman. Dine, in particular, has two qualities that link him closely to Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns; It is essentially a painter of assenblages, and his subjects are different varieties of reality. Thus, performs its works of art by juxtaposition of fragments of different, devoid of their utilitarian determinations, and not configured objects or materials compositional rules predetermined, but grouped in a casual manner or apparently random (the French "Nouveau Réalisme" mixed media). In esto away from Lichtenstein, Rosenquist and Warhol, lovers of the flat surface. In the works of Dine almost always appear one or more objects prefabricated (ties, lawn equipment, appliances, shower, etc.) that are attached to a canvas and loose brushstrokes creates an appropriate environment surrounding them. For example, in his oil paintings from the year 1962, black and five feet of color tools, are respectively a sink joined a white canvas surrounded by black strokes and 32 colored tools hanging from hooks on a canvas without priming with mounted wood slat. Other works of this period are walking shoes on my mind (1960), Bedroom Ensemble I (bedroom decoration) (1963), and double red self-portrait. The green lines (1964). The latter represents two bathrobes and no wonder since this object, worked in a thousand different ways, is a metaphor for his own portrait.

Sometimes, the assenblaje will expand to fill the space and Dine relies on the accumulation of various objects that invade the Judson Gallery, as it happens in the House (1960).

It is considered equally pioneer of Performance Art at the end of the Decade of the sixties and beginning of the next. His career as performer began with Fluxus and the survivors of Dada, as Raoul Hausman. Thus, despite the disapproval expressed by veterans Dadaists about Pop Art and the nuances more overtly intellectual, political, or philosophical "actions" of Fluxus, the living representation and the happenings devised by Claes Oldenburg and Jim Dine (where there was an element of criticism and most joyous provocation) counted with the support of these artists non-Americans. Classic happenings of Jim Dine, as the automobile accident, took place, as the majority of the carried out by pop artists, in environments specially built by the artists. Its roots remained in the Studio of the artist, not in the theatre. The car accident was a subjective reconstruction of associations caused by a traffic accident, and in this sense it is comparable with the work and the sensitivity of Beuys'collage-enviroment". The situation was made up of a series of ropes that hung objects such as tires, flags of the Red Cross, helmets, gloves, clothes, cans... and which surrounded the chairs where the spectators sat. In any case the acts of Diné Otto Muehl, Günter Brüs (n.1938), and Rudolf Schwarzkogler (1941-1969) differed from those represented by the immediately following European artists like Hermann Nitsch (b. 1938), Member of the wild group of Vienna that were more abstract, less specific. Much of his energy was devoted to the exploitation of terribly serious and extreme situations.

Also collaborated with the British pop artist Paolozzi on a series of collages. Later, Dine has dedicated to traditional figurative painting. In the 1980s he/she made a sculpture of classical inspiration.

Almudena Baeza Medina.