Biography of María Eva Duarte de Perón (1919-1952)

Public act of Eva Perón in Spain.

Argentine politics born in Los Toldos (province of Buenos Aires) on May 7, 1919 and died in Buenos Aires on July 26, 1952. Better known as Evita, became the first lady of Argentina by her marriage to Juan Domingo Perón.

Daughter of Juan Duarte and Juana Ibarguren, received his first studies in Junin. In 1935 he/she moved to Buenos Aires and worked as an actress and singer, with little success. In 1939 he/she began to work as a radio announcer. Eva immediately tuned with the fascist ideology and the overnight, became the main propaganda instrument of the Argentine military regime. He/She managed to perform in his interviews work to the main characters of Argentine politics, which helped him to form part of the political scene of the country. In one of these interviews he/she met Colonel Juan Domingo Perón, who, thanks to his influence media, became the most important man in Argentina.

In October 1945, broke out a rebellion against Perón, who resigned from their posts. Eva convinced him that he/she could count on labor support and that workers may resort to the general strike, unprecedented in the history of Argentina. Peron was arrested, but Eva Duarte, still his mistress, went to work for trade union representatives to mobilize it. On October 17 a multitude of workers appeared close to the Casa Rosada and got freedom of Perón, who asked for the day after a general strike in solidarity. The success of the strike meant his return to power, and was presented as a candidate for the presidential election, at the time already acting as President.

On October 21, 1945 Eva married Juan Domingo Perón in a civil ceremony in Buenos Aires. on 9 December held the religious link. In the beginning it worked without titles as Adviser to her husband. Eventually, it was becoming the true leadership of the Affairs of labour and social security. Its influence grew to such an extent that the Labor Secretary gave all his powers and went on to work at your service; trade unions, also went to depend entirely on their willingness to: Eva dictated regulations and appointed Presidents and members of the committees. One of the main aspects on which he/she worked was the emancipation of women as essential step for the modernization of the country. Women's suffrage was adopted in 1947.

Juan Perón.

During the month of June, 1947, avoids made a tour of Europe, carefully prepared by the Argentine ambassadors of five capitals; the tour was known as the "Rainbow tour". In Spain he/she was welcomed with full honours. Afterwards visited Rome, where he/she received a good reception among the aristocracy, and was even received by the Pope Pius XII. In France, Evita had to suspend many of the programmed events. The tour, which had begun with a truly tremendous success in Spain, ended in failure in the remainder of the visited countries; Perhaps that is the reason why Eva refused an invitation from the British Royal family at Buckingham Palace. However, before returning to Argentina, he/she made quick visits to Holland, Switzerland and Lisbon.

In October 1948 avoids stood in front of all the charitable institutions in the nation, creating the Foundation of support María Eva Duarte de Perón, whose funds, tax-exempt, served for the construction of hospitals, schools and homes for children and the elderly, holiday and game, swimming pools and housing for the most disadvantaged fields. But also emerged allegations that that money was used by the first lady for their personal profit. In July 1949 he/she founded the female Peronist party, as a branch of the militant's own party of Peron, who assumed his presidency and set objectives to create schools for women, strengthen the family as a semi-political unit and encourage women to support the revolution Peronist.

In 1949 he/she began the decline of Eva Duarte. The economic crisis is noted and trade unionists called for a general strike earlier this year. Prevents it managed to stop the strike without access to requests for increase in salaries by officials, but the main opposition to her came primarily from the army. A group of far-right demonstrators official asked Peron that he/she forced his wife to retire from political life; the President refused and this put the country on the brink of civil war. The military ended by kowtowing to the President and his wife. But, while, from Montevideo, Sammartino opened against the President and Eva Perón a dossier of accusations which demanded that their personal accounts are made public and heritage increases to justify it. Critical situation, Perón called early for the 11 November 1951 elections. Prevents stood in front of the female Peronist party, and went with a group of women for Perón request that it continue in the Presidency for the sake of Argentina.

At the beginning of 1951 avoids announced its willingness to be Vice President of the country, but did not obtain the desired support. Eva finally managed to the Secretary general of the Confederation of labour, José Espejo, give you word of his appointment, and for this purpose is called a demonstration in Buenos Aires for August 22. Prevents launched an unprecedented election campaign, but the demonstration, in which thought that it would be named by popular acclaim, was a failure; that same night he/she communicated his resignation to the candidacy. Although this was a serious political failure for Eva, Peron decreed that on 18 October, day of San Juan, would be on the day of Santa Evita, and made coin in honor of his wife the great Medal extraordinary Peronista.tambien honored it with the maximum award of Argentina, which until then had only had the general San Martín: that of liberator of the Republic.

That year his health had begun to resent. Although initially not became public, his illness was leukemia. In November he/she was interned at the Policlinico President Perón of Buenos Aires to be surgically intervened. His illness had ups and downs, because it was a rare type of leukemia, and during periods of better health, the first lady made brief appearances in public. However, as was 1952, Evita was worsening. Made his last public appearance on June 4, at the ceremony of investiture of Perón as President of Argentina. On June 10, Juan Domingo admitted that the situation was really serious; July 25 condition worsened and the next day he/she lost consciousness. The afternoon of July 26, to the 8.25, died.

Eva Peron.

The death of Eva Duarte de Peron was an event that paralyzed Argentina daily living for weeks. Juan Domingo Perón received notes of condolence from almost all the heads of Government of the world. On 10 August the official funeral was held. His coffin was transported to the Cathedral in Buenos Aires and finally settled in the building of the General Confederation of labour.

The reason of my life work is a reflection of their social applications, who will become the enduring symbol of peronism.

In 2004 an exhibition showed public seventy unpublished photos of the famous first lady of argentina, rescued after more than forty years in oblivion. maría Teresa Mazzorotolo, daughter of the great Alfredo Mazzorotolo, Evita's personal photographer (who accompanied for much of his life) was that he/she decided to show these photographs, because his father did not dare to spread them. In them, the first lady appears in different situations, many of them unusual and everyday.


BRUCE, G. The "descamisados" avoids. Barcelona, 1976.