German scientist born in 1879 in Ulm on March 14, 1879 and died in Princeton on April 18, 1955. Regarded as the theoretical physical most of the 20th century, it is known, primarily, as the creator of the theory of relativity. Nobel Prize in physics was awarded the in 1921 for his explanation of the photoelectric phenomenon.
His birth coincided with one of the multiple transfers that made his family due to economic difficulties. He/She joined technology Swiss Federal Institute at the age of seventeen. After finishing his studies, it was nationalized Swiss, and began working in the Office, patent Switzerland, Berne. This was a humble work, which made him a good examiner of inventions and provided him with enough economic slack to continue with his research alone. He/She published in 1905, then named "annus mirabilis" (miraculous year) of science, its first three articles that dealt with the fields of the Brownian motion and the photoelectric effect special relativity, and wrote the equivalence of mass energy, as well as his doctoral thesis.
He married two times marriage, the first in 1903, whose nuptials were born two sons and the second shortly after 1916, with a bonus of his own which brought two daughters from his previous marriage. In 1909, he/she got his first place of Professor at the University of Zurich. The following year he/she obtained a professorship in Prague, and two years later in Zurich; He/She was appointed director of the Institute of physics Kaiser Wilhelm in Berlin in 1913, and two years later published the general theory of relativity.
His theory consists of two different statements. The first, published in 1905 and called special relativity, deals with systems that move one with respect to the other with constant speed (even can be equal to zero); the second (from 1916), called general relativity, deals with systems moving at variable speed. The postulates of special relativity are two; the first says that all motion is relative to anything else, and therefore the ether, which had been considered during the 19th century as average propagator of light and the only thing quite firmly of the universe, with absolute and not determinable movement, was out of place in physics, did not need a similar concept (which could not be determined by any experiment).
The second postulate asserts that the speed of light is always constant with respect to any observer. Of their theoretical premises obtained a series of equations that had important consequences and even some disconcerting, as the increase of the mass with speed. One of its most important results was the equivalence between mass and energy, according to the famous formula E = mc², where c is the speed of light, and E represents the energy obtainable by a body of mass m when all its mass is converted into energy. The equivalence between mass and energy was demonstrated in the laboratory in 1932, and resulted in impressive concrete applications in the field of Physics (both nuclear fission and nuclear fusion are processes in which a part of the mass of the atoms is transformed into energy). Particle accelerators where you get an increase in mass are clear experimental example of the theory of special relativity. In a system moving with respect to an observer verifies a time dilation; This is clearly illustrated by the famous twins paradox: "imagine twins of twenty years, and that one remained on Earth and the other departed in a ship, as fast as light, towards a distant goal thirty years Earth light; the back of the ship, to the twin who stayed on earth would have passed sixty years; In contrast, the other only a few days".
The theory of general relativity refers to the case of movements that occur with variable speed and has as a fundamental postulate the equivalence principle, according to which the effects produced by a gravitational field is equivalent to those produced by the accelerated movement. The first important conclusion reached Einstein to develop this premise was that the orbits of the planets were not fixed, as I had thought Newton, but that they rotated slowly in space, therefore this movement was imperceptible in most of the planets. So Einstein believed that the ellipse drawn by mercury in its orbit around the Sun, would have to exhibit a rotation that exceeded in forty-three seconds of arc per century to the predicted by the Newtonian theory. This discrepancy could occur years later with the development of more precise measuring instruments.
The second conclusion, which led the general relativity, went to the prediction according to which light rays, going from a region of a gravitational field to another, should suffer a shift in its wave length (displacement to the Red of Einstein), which was proven by measuring the apparent displacement of a star, with respect to a group of stars taken as referenceWhen light rays from it brushed the Sun. Verification was carried out using a total eclipse of the Sun (to prevent glare on the observer by the Sun's rays, at the time of be reached by Star); the star was photographed twice, one in absence and in presence of the eclipse. Thus, by measuring the apparent displacement of the star with respect to the of the reference stars, was obtained the angle of deviation which turned out to be very close to what Einstein envisioned.
In the wake of general relativity, the cosmological models of the universe also underwent a radical transformation. Relativistic Cosmology made assumptions about a universe unlimited, devoid of limits or barriers, but finite, that space was curved in the direction of that gravitational masses determined in its proximity the curvature of light rays. However, Friedmannin 1922, conceived a model representing an expanding universe, even static, which was due to the relativistic equations of Einstein.
In 1920, while he/she was still in the Patent Office, he/she met Leo Szilard, a young and brilliant physicist of Hungarian origin, whereupon he/she locked a strong relationship of friendship and with which shared a huge hobby by ideas and invention. Result of the friendship of both and the interest of Szilard in thermodynamics (had solved the paradoxical problem of Maxwell'sdemon by introducing the concept of bit) was the establishment of an agreement to develop domestic refrigerators that used no moving parts.
The developments resulted in several patents and collaboration agreements with companies Berlin Bamag-Mequin, in 1926, and with the Swedish company Electrolux in 1927. Both agreements failed to deliver commercial products for various reasons. In 1928 they had a refrigerator that was used as a source of energy the tap water pressure, and which was manufactured with some success by the company Citogel.
After these experiences, both began work on his most revolutionary invention: Einstein-Szilárd electromagnetic pump, which had no moving parts, and in which an electromagnetic field caused the displacement of a liquid metal. The AEG company became interested in the invention and, on July 31, 1931, was put in evidence. Depression of the German company put an end to this project. At the same time, the rise of Hitler to power advised the output of both of Germany due to their status as Jews. Although none of the refrigerators designed this collaboration became commercialized, in the seven years of collaboration they recorded more than forty and five patent applications in six countries.
He left Germany in 1933. Lived exiled first in France and later in Belgium, United Kingdom and United States, this last country where he/she was received with enthusiasm, and where took over the Chair of theoretical physics at the Institute for advanced studies in Princeton. Refused to participate in the research that led to the atomic bomb, and even after was recognized for his pacifist attitude, which highlighted their efforts to establish international control of the use of atomic energy. The pacifist Charter that the scientist wrote the President THEODORE Roosevelt in 1939 was very reported. In 1940 he/she took U.S. citizenship, and around 1945 withdrew from teaching in order to develop their theoretical research exclusively. The Presidency of the Jewish State of Israel, which he/she declined was offered in 1952. In a symposium on Science and Religion, admitted to believe ".. .in the God of Spinoza, which is identical to the mathematical order of the universe".
The last years of his life he/she devoted to them to try to develop a theory that would pool existing in physical properties, gathered around electromagnetic force, weak nuclear force, of strong nuclear force and gravity, under the so-called unified field theory, or TGU. Further developments of the very high energy physics experiments still not have been able to complete the dilemmas posed by the, and the models proposed by the theory of strings, or supersymmetry are, so far, partial approaches to the unification project.
In 2005, to celebrate 50 years of the disappearance of the physicist, a group of researchers carried out a recomposition of its brain, based on 240 parts when their brain mass was sliced and wrapped in celloidin conservation.