Poet, playwright and Anglo-American essayist born in Saint Louis (in the U.S. State of Missouri) on November 26, 1888 and died in London on 4 January 1965. He is universally known by the initials of their given names, which, along with your last name, signed almost all his works ("T. S. Eliot"). Author of a splendid poetic production whose dark symbolism, so lucid as disturbing, better than any other contemporary lyric voice reflects the anguish and confusion of the man in the first half of the 20th century (so confused and desolate between two world wars), is considered one of the greatest of world literature poets. In 1948, the Swedish Academy awarded the Nobel Prize for literature "for his outstanding contribution in the advancement of contemporary poetry", contribution by stranger who seems, has not been denied or minusvalorada by any critic or writer of the 20th century, which takes singular validity the strong opinion of the narrator and dramatist William Somerset Maugham, who, in his introduction to the English and American literatureShe called Eliot as "the greatest poet of our time".
T. S. Eliot (who was us during the first half of its existence, and British citizen from 1927 until the end of his days) came to the world in the bustling American city of Saint Louis, located on the right bank of the Mississippi, into a distinguished family of New England formed by an influential business man and a poet of low-relief in the nineteenth century American letters. It was precisely his mother, author of a poetic drama entitled Savaranola (whose subsequent editing would write a foreword the own Eliot), whom instilled you this passion for literary creation that would accompany him throughout his life.
Already in full youth, encouraged by such accused humanistic vocation, he enrolled at Harvard College (1906) and obtained a Bachelor's degree in letters, between 1910 and 1911, expanded in Europe, first at the University of Sorbonne (Paris) - where she shared a friendship with writers Henri-Alban Fournier and Jacques Rivière- and shortly afterwards in Merton College, Oxford in 1909. On his return to the United States he continued to study for three years at Harvard Graduate School (1911-1914), then immersed in the rich and varied cultural environment that existed in Boston prior to the first world war. It was during that fertile period of their education when it deepened knowledge of some great authors of the past that would exert a powerful influence in his first literary writings, such as the Elizabethan and metaphysical English poets (among them, and in a very marked way, John Donne), the French post-simbolistas Laforgue and Corbiere, the medieval Provencal lyric authors and poets estilnovistas of the Italy of the 13th and 14th, with special attention to the immortal work of Dante Alighieri.
In 1914, seduced by the cultural atmosphere that had breathed in Europe, he returned to embark towards the old continent and settled in London, where it faced its first job duties, first as a Professor of literature at a school and, shortly after, as an employee of the Bank, famous entity in the British capital, Lloyd completo Bank. It had already begun to write his first poetic texts, activity that soon had to reconcile with his dedication to cultural journalism, in capacity as Assistant Director of the magazine The Egoist (1917-1919). Married to the English citizen Vivienne Heigh-Wood and fully integrated into the forums and artistic and intellectual cenacles of the British capital, in 1922 he founded The Criterion, a literary publication of quarterly periodicity, in front of which would remain until 1939. Already enshrined as one of the great revelations of the contemporary poetry written in English language, he returned to teaching sporadically, toured many places pronouncing conferences and intervening in courses and seminars, and was appointed Director of the prestigious seal British publisher Faber & Faber.
The rejection of forms of life and mentality of the middle class of his native country prompted him, in 1927, to break sharply with ties that followed by linking him to the United States of America. Indeed, not only requested and obtained British nationality, in that year but made public his conversion to Christianity (in the breast - perhaps on warn him - of the Anglican Church) and was Classicist in his literary interests and monarchist in their political orientation (in spite of this, in numerous anthological shows of American poetry T. S. Eliot remains as "American poet"). This period of his political conversion, spiritual and intellectual ideas and majority belief among British citizenship coincided with his passionate interest in theatrical writing, first in a purely theoretical (it was already, by then, a renowned essayist and a respected literary critic) and, in the Decade of the 1930s, as a successful playwrightauthor of a renewing theatrical production which, sustained almost until the end of his life, sought to break away from aesthetics and stale and stuffy themes of naturalism.
Also at the beginning of the 1930s (specifically, between 1932 and 1933) definitely broke the bond of marriage that linked him to Vivienne Heigh-Wood since 1915, due to the rapid physical and mental deterioration of his wife. Engaged, from 1936 until 1942, in his lyrical project more ambitious - Four Quartets (four quartets) - was already fully aware of the influence that as a critic and, above all, as a poet was exercising on his contemporaries and generations of young writers who came behind theirs, both in the United Kingdom - where explicitly recognized their teaching some authors like Wystan Hugh Auden, Stephen Spender and Cecil Day-Lewis- as in the United States of America - where were permeable to his poetic other such reputable lyric growers already as Conrad Aiken and Allen Tate, or the young Horace Gregory and Archibald Mac Leish-. But the universal breath of his poetic work transcended borders dilated from the English language to impregnate the creations of other many authors from anywhere in the world; It was enough, to cite just one example in Spanish, with repair on the track of Eliot in the Chilean poets Pablo Neruda and Humberto Díaz Casanueva, in the Mexican Octavio Paz and Alí Chumacero, and, among others many, in the Peruvian José María Eguren, to check that his work already enjoyed a well-deserved international renown. Is not surprising, therefore, that in 1932 was received with honors from great universal poet in his home country, where he was invited to give some lectures at his old alma mater Bostonian, in the midst of the admiration of all students and professors of Harvard, which was attended by astonished not only extraordinary kinds of Eliot, but also his constant display of that British snobbery of which both boasted ("I have the trend - said then ("between his old compatriots - to stay asleep in armchairs of the clubs, but I think my brain works as well as ever after drinking my tea").
After more than three decades, T. S. Eliot returned to the United States of America to receive the title of doctor honoris cause that they granted Harvard and Princeton universities a few months before being awarded the Nobel Prize for literature (1948), and the second of the newly cited higher education institutions was hailed as "a critic and a poet of high distinctionwhose work has exerted a great influence in the course of our literature". Widely known in the Scandinavian cultural media - thanks to the tours of conferences which, during the second world war, conducted by Northern Europe at the expense of the cultural authorities British-, surprised no one that the Swedish Academy granted the highest award of universal at the end of the Decade of the 1940s, when he had several years in lists of candidates to the obtaining of such high recognition.
Numerous testimonies from writers and like minded people Eliot have been printed to describe it, in his years at Harvard, as a bright but reserved, student early already inclined toward literary models and the urban mores of Europe (it was a voracious reader of French poetry), and refractory to fashions and North American currents of its time (boasted, for examplenot ever attend courses on the modern drama that dictated the Professor George P. Baker, widely followed by all the students from the prestigious University of Bostonian). Concerned at all times to maintain his pose of genuine gentleman, is expressed in a genuine English oxoniense purity and forward eluded any lexicon turn in their speech or syntactic of American slang. He wore, in addition, with the studied neglect of a British dandy, and was distinguished by other hobbies that kept throughout his life, as the pursuit of loneliness, the consumption of pipe tobacco, attachment to Burgundy wine and the practice of Board games which required the participants a high concentration (like chess).
His physical portrait - beautifully prepared, among others, by the English writer j. B. holdin' - presents it as "a man, tall, thin, slightly tilted, with a hooked nose that gives your face the appearance of a huge bird that had just returned from a distant flight and had stopped to rest". The portraitist defined below the nose of Eliot as "volteriana", and stops in the scope of its enigmatic gaze to talk about his eyes as "accustomed to the in-depth analysis of the things [...] in its proper perspective [...]; eyes that are as precision instruments and, occasionally, as vigilantes who guard the secret of deep feelings and tempestuous emotions".
Despite his early inclination toward the letters, was not Eliot, certainly, a poet of the early, since his first volume of poems did not see the light until 1917, when the writer of Saint Louis was next to meet the twenty-nine years of age. This debut - preceded, that Yes, several new compositions that had appeared in the pages of different periodicals - hit the streets entitled Prufrock and Other Observations (Prufrock and other observations, 1917), and was dedicated to "Jean Verdenal (1889-1915), died in the Dardamelos". His appearance caused a great commotion on the British literary scene, where some of the poems contained (as the excellent "the song of love of J. Alfred Prufrock" and "Portrait of a lady") were received as genuine innovations seeking to enter the unsettling and disturbing atmosphere that Baudelaire had helped French letters with flowers of evil in English poetry (1855). To achieve this purpose renovator, T. S. Eliot despised the thematic tradition of English poetry (so dependent on an already outdated inspiration in the nature models) and was looking for his troubled arguments in environments of urban bohemia (nighttime streets, dormers, cosmopolitan cafes, etc.). But willingness to transgressive and disruptive went far beyond the mere renewal of themes, topics and motifs, as it penetrated also with unusual success in the field of formal to adapt the nervous rhythm of the French symbolists to a lyric which, like the English, remained too close to traditional rhythmic serenity. The procedure used to achieve this technical innovation - next, according to Untermayer, new methods provided by the cinematographer - was to use a complex verse "combining affected and trivial descriptions with the poetic traditional song, chaining the banalities of the conversation to the rich rhetoric and interrupting the present with evocations of the past"; This achieved Eliot "capture images fast and apparently unrelated, and discordant metaphors that produced an emotional reaction at the expense of a logical progression".
The own Eliot would recognize by writing, many years later, this direct influence of symbolism, received at the beginning of the century through the reading of the book entitled the Symbolist movement in literature, the work of the poet and Welsh critic Arthur Symons. In an essay published in 1930, Saint Louis poet said: "I have for Mr. Symons a great debt." Had not been for his book, I would have heard, in 1908, of Laforgue or Rimbaud; probably it had not begun to read Verlaine, and without Verlaine, he had not known of Corbière. The Symons book is, therefore, one of those who have influenced my life."
Two years after the appearance of Prufrock and Other Observations and the second collection of poems by T. S. Eliot, was published under the generic title of Poems (poems, 1919), and presented the following year, a modified Edition with the new heading of Ara Vos Prec (1920). This last year it also dates the first essay published by Eliot, The Sacrat Wood (the sacred wood, 1920), which initiated a successful reflexive experience which, fundamentally focused on literary creation (and, very pointed way on the relationship of the poet with the history of poetry, understood as the collective product of a civilization), ended up making the Anglo-American writer in one of the most authoritative voices of the contemporary criticism.
Waste land (1922)
It also came from the press in that year a new book of poetry of Eliot, entitled Gerontion (1920); but the real world consecration of the author of Saint Louis as the great universal poet of his generation came after the publication, at the beginning of the 1920s, The Waste Land (waste land, 1922), a long poem of complex and intricate structure and lexicon of hidden symbolism scope, in which was perfectly reflected the desolation, frustration, and despair of an era. In a pathetic and barren world that spread its anguished abandonment all the verses of the poem, Eliot notices that vanity is the centerpiece of the existence and aims to explore its trace in two parallel areas: the misery of everyday life and the creations of the spirit. This combination of the elemental and routine of the human with the high and exceptional existence of creativity is expressed in the poem through complex Symbolist images which, in turn, are buried under a fertile alluvium of quotes and Intertextual references most diverse literature sources. Exercise, therefore, deep and fertile poetic inspiration the carried out by Eliot in The Waste Land, but also extensive and rigorous scholarship, which highlights its use of readings of diverse wealth of thematic and stylistic as Ecclesiastes, or the works of San Agustín; Dante; Spenser, Shakespeare, Webster, Milton, Goldsmith, Gerard de Nerval, Verlaine and (among many others) Hermann Hesse. To carry to extreme limits the complexity of the four hundred and thirty-three verses that make up The Waste Land, the quotes from all of these authors are interspersed without notes, quotes, or any other type of formal warning, in the original text of Eliot, which thus becomes a vast and protean mosaic of many languages and cultures, and reinforces its representation of the world as chaotic and desolate, integrated by a barrage of debris by this procedure. The own Eliot confessed years later, in a note placed at the end of the poem in an anthology of his work - selection of poems: 1909-1935 (London: Faber & Faber, 1935)-, which influences received in the preparation of The Waste Land went much further than reflected in its rich and varied Intertextuality, as it was well clear, for example, in the fact that his own title and a good part of his Symbolist scope came from reading of a book of Miss Jessie L. Weston on the legend of the Holy Grail, entitled From Ritual to Romance (from Ritual to Romance); or in the use of The Golden Bough (the Golden Branch), of the Scottish anthropologist Sir James Frazer (1854-1941), where Eliot had taken much of this repertoire of myths that managed to evoke the idea of a wasteland that desperately seeks your feedback.
As the brilliant culmination of this initial stage of the poetic production of Eliot, marked by pessimism and despair, he left the brochure the poetry book The Hollow Men (the hollow men, 1925), which was also received with great acclaim by the critics and readers, and influenced also with unusual strength among the young poets in English language from both sides of the Atlantic. The uprooting and the angst that had sown world war way, further lessen with the passage of the years, accentuated his dark dyes in the Western world, where the most brilliant artists and intellectuals (among them the own T. S. Eliot) continued to see a solution to this acute crisis and general of consciousnesses (who sensed(, in addition, future disasters even major, as the outbreak of the second war conflagration international). It was not surprising, therefore, that this new book of poems of the Anglo-American author, in a desperate clamor reaching sometimes blasphemy, submit to men like empty dolls, stuffed with "wind and stubble" and issuing of voices devoid of meaning.
Shortly thereafter, coinciding with its conversion to Anglicanism, T. S. Eliot began to cultivate theatrical writing, with the intention of creating a pair of dramas of court aristofanesco (Sweeney Agonistes and Coriolanus), to the dessert, remained unfinished. Yes, they saw the light, on the other hand, the series "Ariel" poems, written between 1927 and 1930, where Eliot began to inquire about the problem of faith from a meditative approach that disdained not the musicality of the verse; as well as a new poetry volume which, under the eloquent title of Ash-Wednesday (Ash Wednesday, 1927), embodied in beautiful verses his recent religious ups and downs, with special consideration on the issue of penance. It should be put here, since the beginning of the second stage in the lyrical path of Eliot, dominated by sharp theme twist that left bitter pessimism of his earlier poems to accept the consolation of faith Christian (in a clear implementation, to the poetic work of his own spiritual experiences). As is the case in other works by constant reference in the poetry of Eliot (such as the Bible and the Divine Comedy), in Ash-Wednesday underlined the existence of a penitential pathway through which, through the resignation and humility, the human spirit can overcome their insignificance and achieve salvation.
Four quartets (1935-1942)
In the Decade of the 1930s, T. S. Eliot addressed the drafting of its lyric more ambitious, published between 1935 and 1942 and presented under the global heading of Four Quartets (four quartets). The line opened by the series of "Ariel" and, above all, by Ash Wednesday, the Anglo-American author now uses the explicit use of the Anglican liturgy to show the effects of his conversion, embodied in a deep rooted philosophical serenity and a quiet spiritual and disciplined, always open to hope. It has been noted that, with the drafting of this monumental poetic work, Eliot intended to carry out, in the field of poetic creation, the same intellectual and spiritual exercise that Beethoven had practiced in the field of music: condense the substance of mystical experience. And, indeed, the rhythmic richness and musicality of the verse, allied with the captivating beauty of conjugation of the always complex images of Eliot, triumph and seduce the reader along the four quartets; But what really matters to the writer of Saint Louis, above those formal aspects so exquisitely addressed and resolved, here is the embodiment of such mystical concerns that condense into the central theme of the series: the time, conceived not as human time measuring clocks or the historical time marked out by the major events of the past, but as that stalemate in which it is possible to the reunion with the Encarnación of the word (i.e., as the mystics understand it).
Four quartets is composed of Burnt Norton (1935), East Coker (1940), The dry wild (1942) and Little Gidding (1942), titles that correspond to the names of places that are closely related to the own vital vicissitudes of Eliot: Burnt Norton is the name of a mansion located in Gloucestershire and occupied by the Anglo-American poet during a period of time; East Coker, a village in Somerset which came their English ancestors; The dry wild - which some translators have poured into Spanish as "Dry salvages", is a group of rocks situated in Cape Ann (in the U.S. State of Massachusetts); and Little Gidding was a religious community founded by Nicholas Farrar. The enormous difficulty of the poem (requiring the reader extensive knowledge of historical, literary, and philosophical, although not dispelled by this splendid beauty and sound musicality of his verses), has given rise to numerous interpretations among the reviewers in Eliot's work; one of the most suggestive is Patrick Dudgeon, who resorted to the philosophy of Heraclitus (550-480 BC) to designate the symbolic scope of the four elements in Four Quartets. According to this interpretation, Burnt Norton is the air; East Coker, the Earth; The dry wild, water; and Little Gidding, fire.
Although the core theme of the four quartets, as already indicated above, is the time of mystical experience timeless, in the verses of these extensive poems laten cryptic references to everyday life and the events of the present (as the disaster of the war and the bombing of London). Through his parables and metaphors of difficult interpretation, Eliot now presents itself as a kind of visionary Prophet who urges men to repentance and reconciliation with the God of Christianity that have moved away.
Murder in the Cathedral (1935)
The Eliot interest in dramatic literature, revealed in the mid-1920s in two minor pieces that were left unfinished (the already mentioned Sweeney Agonistes and Coriolanus), pushed you to conclude a first work theatrical entitled The Rock (the rock, 1934), a sacred drama, medieval-inspired, written to correspond to the request of the Anglican Church, who had asked him a theatrical text to mark a religious holiday. But real successful English stage debut took place in the mid-1930s, with the premiere of Murder in the Cathedral (murder in the Cathedral, 1935), a drama in verse, composed of three acts and an interlude, carrying the tables a historical episode that is well known to the British public: the murder of Thomas Beckett, Archbishop of Canterbury, ordered by King Henry II (1133-1189). The action, located in Canterbury in 1170, presents the late Archbishop upon his return to England after seven years of exile in France, ready to put an end to the disputes that have opened a chasm between the Church and the State. Their purposes of concordia topan squarely with the firm opposition of anyone around him, lined up already on the side of the Church (represented in the work by the priests), already in the realist party (embodied in Enrique II officers). Will void of understanding prevailing in both disputants join Thomas Beckett in a severe inner conflict of which try to take advantage of the four tempting you presented, each one of whom wields its benefit, one of the four passions which, until then, the Archbishop has could not resist it: their fondness for worldly pleasures (dominant in him since his early youth)the lust for power, the political reason for the feudal lords and the aspiration to achieve Holiness. But Beckett makes gathering enough inner strength necessary to reject these four temptations and go ahead with their plans, so, on the morning of the day of Christmas of 1170, goes up to the pulpit of Canterbury Cathedral and runs a vibrant sermon to the faithful. It is then when the nobles sent by the King begin to attack him. but the Archbishop is not belies or try to run away, that just giving rise to homicidal action of his attackers. In the end, the Knights of King climbing to the pulpit to explain the motives of the murder; the priests raise their songs and prayers to heaven, giving thanks to God for having given another Holy Church; and the plain people, overcome by the horror of the tragedy that has just taken place before their eyes, invokes the divine mercy.
The immediate and resounding success achieved by Eliot with his first theatrical release (which gives good references the fact that the company that put it on stage, directed by Martin Browne, made over eight hundred representations between 1935 and 1938) was due to several factors well known and managed by this literary "Monster" which was the Anglo-American author: first, he took the tables an historical episode that was familiar to the British public, and certainly anyone who had visited the Cathedral of Canterbury, notoriety that eliminated the possible difficulties of assimilation of a time, a few characters and a few such events in time; Secondly, the complexity of the story (arising from the confrontation between the various reasons given by both sides) was buried under an intelligent presentation of facts allowing the Viewer to establish an immediate relationship between the plot and the struggle that, at that time, held by the Church against the totalitarian regimes; and, thirdly, Eliot had renounced the darkness of her poetry to go directly to the public through a language of great simplicity, which showed that it was also capable of expressing the intricacy of his thinking. In addition, the writer of Saint Louis returned to bragging of his deep knowledge of classical literature, by resorting to the introduction in his work by a chorus that, in the manner of classical tragedy, anticipated and explained what was going to happen, and using other effective structural procedures to capture the attention of the public as the replacement of the verse by the prose in the two parliaments of greater dramatic force: the sermon delivered by the Archbishop the day of his death and the final plea of the four noble authors of his death.
Meeting of family (1939)
Encouraged by this resounding victory Theatre (soon renewed in France with the premiere of the version entitled Meurtre dans la cathédrale), T. S. Eliot was raised the challenge of addressing in its dramatic writing, with identical poetic formula, new themes and specific arguments of his time. It was thus as they emerged from his pen two supernal theatrical pieces, The Family Reunion (Reunion of family, 1939) and Cocktail Party (1950), which placed him among the playwrights of the 20th century, in the same levels of universal literary prestige that had already achieved with its lyric corpus. The protagonist of The Family Reunion is Harry, the eldest son of lady Monchensey, a severe and authoritarian widow who used to meet at home your family once a year, to celebrate the anniversary of their arrival in the world. The commemoration of the birthday which gives rise to the action is of a special solemnity, as expected the return of Harry, who left his house seven years earlier (on the occasion of their marriage) and now returns after losing his wife in a shipwreck. Before an audience composed, in addition to the owner of the House, his sister Ivy, Violet and Agatha (completely subject to the tyrannical will of the host), Mary (a poor relative to that lady Monchensey has hosted for the purpose of marrying her Harry and thus retain his son at the family home), the colonels (brothers of the deceased husband of the owner of the mansion)a group of maids, the inevitable tragic chorus and the silent eumenides (Greek deities of remorse, directly from the theatre of Aeschylus), Harry proclaims the contempt that causes life routine and waste all of them ("you are beings that nothing has happened, except the constant clash of outside events. You have passed the life in a dream. No nightmare you awake. I tell you that life would be intolerable if you awake") and horrifies everyone with a shocking revelation: it was he who threw overboard his wife, with the murderous intention to get rid of it.
No one is willing to give credit to this confession of Harry (which beset now visibly those deities of the remorse that pursued him last year), except his Aunt Agatha, who increases the shock and the horror of the family meeting with the revelation that, in another time, she and Harry's father maintained a passionate love affair, and that the late husband of lady Monchensey came even to consider the murder of his wife. But, according to the own Agatha, her lover was not "suitable for the role of murderer", tragic inheritance that bequeathed to his son, to whom fate has forced to commit a crime as an extension of the other that never materialize. Unveiled, with this, the causes of stormy tribulations that beset Harry, this part heading into the unknown (perhaps his own death, after finding the path of purification and Holiness), which causes the death of her mother, unable to overcome the horror of many dramatic revelations. Agahta then announces the end of the "pilgrimage of the Atonement".Cocktail Party (1949)
Identical shaft theme (SIN, expiation and redemption) holds the plot of Cocktail Party, a drama in three acts, also written in verse, premiered with great success of critics and audiences at the Theatre Festival of Edinburgh from 1949, and staged the following year in New York, under the direction of the aforementioned Martin Browne. Its protagonists are the marriage of Lavinia and Edward Chamberlayne, and respective lovers of each one of them, Peter and Celia. The Chamberlayne, at the apparent failure of their conjugal relationship, sought next to her lovers understanding who cannot procure among them; but neither Peter nor Celia are satisfied with these loving bonds: she, because he has discovered the harsh and rugged character of Edward; and, because of who is actually in love with Celia. At the cocktail party held at the House of the Chamberlayne arises suddenly Riley, a strange character, half-way between a psychiatrist and a "healer of souls", which acts as a spiritual redemption message, and just getting the reconciliation between Lavinia and Edward, who make firm understood and tolerated better purposes. Peter goes to California to devote himself to cinema, and Celia becomes a missionary and target an island in which end up being killed (in a new human sacrifice that, as he was already usual in the theatre of Eliot, gives way to the expiation of sin and the redemption of sinners).
In General, it can be said that the theatre of Eliot, pierced by a vigorous lyrical vein that never tarnish the dramatic dimension of its characters and situations, is a committed and firm reaction against the thematic and formal models of naturalism. Other works of less interest than the recently analyzed are The Confidential Clerk (employee confidence, 1954) and The Elder Statesman (the elder statesman, 1959), in which serious issues with the moral and religious spirituality (constant in all his theatrical production) treaties appear from a satirical approach and a conversational dialogues that acuity, although they show the literary inventiveness of Eliot, unable to go back to dramatic elevations crowned by The Murder in the Cathedral, The Family Reunion and Cocktail Party.
The first trials of Eliot, almost always focused on topics literary and published at the same time that gave to his poetry, produced a shock similar to that caused by his lyrical texts between English and American writers. Head of current American criticism known as the New Criticism, was the author of some reflections metaliterarias as interesting as those contained in "Tradition and the Individual Talent" ("tradition and individual talent"), essay collected between the pages of the volume The Sacred Wood (the sacred wood, 1920), where he argued that poetry "is not recreation of the released emotion, but an escape from emotion". Later published a new collection of factual articles, Homage to John Dryden (homage to John Dryden, 1924), with which managed to direct the attention of critics, readers and contemporary writers to the Elizabethan English poets (as the aforementioned Donne, but also other less family members), and other major classical authors such as John Dryden. As a result of his religious conversion and his adoption of British nationality, he held in his essays of various political and cultural themes in which the involution of its thinking towards certainly dogmatic and reactionary positions left patent.
The cream of his essays production was compiled in volumes titled Selected Essays: 1919-1932 (selected essays: 1919-1932), The Uses of Poetry (the uses of poetry) and After Strange Gods (after strange Gods).
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