Biography of emperador del Sacro Imperio Enrique II (973-1024)

Emperor of Germany, Bavaria-born 6 may 973 and Gröna died July 13, 1024. It was known as Enrique el Santo or Enrique the lame.

Biographical synthesis

Belonging to the dynasty of Saxony, was the son of Duke Henry II of Bavaria the Pendenciero. Child was banished with his family and returned to Bavaria in 985. He/She was educated by the Bishop Abraham of Freising and decided for an ecclesiastical career, completing his education in Hildesheim with the Bishop Wolfgang of Regensburg. He/She traveled twice to Italy with the Emperor Otto III and inherited Bavaria in 995. Overcoming the opposition of other candidates, was named Emperor in 1002 and during the following years consolidated its position in Germany. Throughout his reign he/she faced constantly against the Duke of Poland, which beat on several occasions but never came to be. In 1004 observed in Pavia the Iron Crown of the Lombards, although its authority in Italy was still precarious for a decade. Henry established the new episcopal see of Bambega (1 November 1007), product of its zeal to maintain supremacy over the Church of Germany. Between 1008 and 1014 maintained wars against his brothers-in-law and, at the same time, Bolesław of Poland. Emperor in Rome was crowned in February 1014 and before leaving Italy took administrative steps to consolidate his power over Lombardy. He/She failed in his attempt to conquer Poland in 1015 but three years after pressure from the Russians about Poland forced Duke Boleslao to sign peace with the emperor. Also in 1018 Enrique got the submission of Lorraine and assumed sovereignty over Burgundy. Between 1020 and 1022 Enrique II participated in the Pontifical expedition against the Byzantines from the South of Italy. In 1024 the Emperor fell ill and died. He/She was buried in the Cathedral of Bamberg and canonized by the Pope Eugenio III; later his wife was also canonized (1200). Conrad IIsucceeded him.

Duke of Bavaria and Emperor of Germany

He succeeded his father in the Duchy of Bavaria on his death in 995, though he/she had to surrender the territories of Carinthia and Verona to his cousin Otón. Henry of Bavaria refused to take part in a conspiracy against the Emperor while he/she was away. On the death of Otto III in 1002, a struggle for succession in which there were several candidates broke out. There was no rivalry between Otto of Carinthia and Henry, who were cousins and the first recognized the rights of the second, in spite of which the election was still a necessary step. Enrique, supported by the Church, took over Royal and Imperial insignia and tried to win the trust of voters, but the emergence of Eckardo Misnia and Herman of Swabia as candidates to the throne complicated coronation. Eckardo was murdered in April 1002 and Enrique then counted with the support of the magnates of Bavaria, Saxony and Eastern Franconia, while Herman was only promoted by Western Franconia and Swabia. The Archbishop of Mainz ratified the election of Enrique via regia anointing and crowning ceremony on June 7.

Herman of Swabia initially did not accept the election and Enrique attacked their lands to subdue him, but Duke responded and devastated the city of Strasbourg, which belonged to him, and whose Bishop had declared supporter of Enrique II. Meanwhile, the Emperor toured the Kingdom and received the homage of the leading magnates: at the beginning of July he/she received in Thuringia the recognition of Henry of Weimar and the leading nobles and abolished the old tax by which the inhabitants of Thuringia had to deliver pigs to the Crown; at the end of the month, in Saxony, held an Assembly of Earls and Saxon bishops, who attended the Duke Bernardo de Sajonia, which only paid homage to Henry after ensuring that the laws of the Saxons would be respected. Enrique continued their journey into the Lorena low and 10 August was crowned Queen his wife Kunigunda (or Conegunda) in Paderborn, causing altercation between the Saxon inhabitants of the city and the Bavarian companions of the King. Henry received the adhesion of the Heriberto Archbishop of Cologne and was sworn in Aix King on September 8. All that remained was for Swabia and the Emperor offered forgiveness to his Duke, Herman, to change that made him the pledge of allegiance and pay damages to Strasbourg.

Wars in Italy and Poland

Although initially the inauguration of Enrique had been accepted by Bolesław II of Poland, soon it was the Duke of Poland expand its independence by conquering the East and the brand of Misnia. Enrique reacted and invested Eckhardo, family of Bolesław, as Lord of Misnia. This fact and an assassination attempt on the Duke of Poland, instigated apparently by Enrique II, led to the Polish to open rebellion against the Emperor: was proclaimed Duke of Bohemia and won the Alliance of Enrique de Schweinfur, margrave of Nordgan, count Ernest of Austria and the brother of the Emperor, Bruno. Henry tried to crush the revolt and fall of 1003 kept a war against the rebels in the District of Nordgan, culminating with the victory of the troops of the Emperor in Creussen. This victory allowed Enrique to deal with their problems in Italy.

The Emperor mobilized Saxon and Bavarian troops so they even new actions of the Duke of Poland and in March 1004 stood at the head of an expedition to subdue the rebellion of the Marquis of Ivrea, Arduino, who had been crowned King of the Lombards. Arduino said the mountain passes, as he/she took positions near Verona, where already had defeated the imperial. But the defection of many of its supporters forced to flee to the Marquis and Henry entered in Verona and from there went to Pavia, along the way collecting the tribute of the magnates of Brescia and Bergamo. He/She was elected King of the Lombards at Pavia on May 14 and a day later observed in the Temple of San Miguel the Iron Crown of the Lombards. In early June, he/she took the way back to Germany.

In mid-August the Emperor mobilized the Saxon and Bavarian troops that had left to neutralize the Duke of Poland and threw them against Prague to snatch the domain of Bohemia Bolesław II. Enrique sat on the throne of Bohemia ducal to his protege Jaromir, family of Bolesław, who had exiled when it took power. Recovery of Bohemia closed the period of consolidation of its reign, but thereafter had to cope with external dangers, notably the incarnated in the Duke of Poland, with whom the Emperor signed a Treaty of peace (1005), which provided little more than the recognition of his authority and the resignation of Bolesław aspirations about Bohemia to Enrique.

During the period of peace which followed, Enrique had to deal with neutralizing the attacks of the Normans pirates on the western coasts of the United. He/She left the matter in the hands of the local counts, while he/she prepared the reconquest of the city of Valenciennes, from which the count Baldwin of Flanders had seized shortly before. In June 1006, Enrique signed an alliance with the King of France, Robert, which resulted in a campaign to regain the city three months later; but the allies were defeated. Enrique then used his ascendancy over Roberto de France to provide aid to his relative, King Rodolfo III of Burgundy, whose authority was disputed by the nobles. The extent that took this action of the Emperor, although it is known that he/she took the city of Basel and was recognized heir of Rodolfo III is not known.

Pacification of Germany

Enrique II began a civil war against the family of his wife, some of whose members were looking for higher levels of power over the churches, which clashed head-on with the ecclesiastical policy of the Emperor, in 1008. The older brother of the Queen, Enrique de Luxemburgo, had been appointed Duke of Bavaria; his younger brother, Dietrich, had sought to be appointed Bishop of Metz in opposition to the candidate proposed by Enrique; a third brother, Adalbero, got Treves Archbishopric after the death of its owner, Liudolfo, in 1008. The war erupted when Henry refused the appointment of Adalbero and proposed his own candidate, which was accepted by the Pope and then driven out of its headquarters. The ducal of Luxembourg family led revolt to Bavaria when the Emperor deposed the Queen's brother and took over the Duchy personally. The war stretched by the Lorraine to 1012.

And while Henry was fighting his brothers-in-law, Bolesław the brave remained in default. In August of 1010 Emperor put Jaromir available an army composed of Saxons and Bohemians to the Duke. The campaign was a disaster that made it to Enrique the substitution of Udalrico by Jaromir as Duke of Bohemia would facilitate peace with Polish. Indeed, Bolesław made homage to the Emperor in Merseburg in 1012, taking the sword in the procession before his Lord and thus received the Lausitz as I stronghold; He/She promised help Henry in Italy and in return received the promise of a contingent to reinforce its defense against the Russians. Enrique had won the peace, but Bolesław won control over the Lausitz, which both had fought.

Internal policy developed by Enrique II and its ample concessions to feudalism had allowed him some control over their German vassals, but in Italy could only count on the support of the majority of the bishops and of a few tycoons. He/She needed to make his situation and hoped a chance so that its intervention in Italy would be advantageous. In 1013 Rome was divided between supporters of the patrician Juan Crescencio and the counts of Tuscolo, who the previous year had been appointed a Pope each, of which Túsculo Juan, who ascended to the papal throne as Benedict VIIIprevailed. The Emperor and Benedict has vowed mutual fidelity and in 1013 Enrique and his wife took the path of Rome for the imperial Coronation of Henry. At Christmas, in Pavia, Arduino to the Emperor offered the Crown of the Lombards in Exchange for the possession of Ivrea brand, but this rejected its offer, while many former supporters of Arduino they offered his submission. Henry went to Rome, where he/she and his wife were crowned Emperor and Empress on 14 February. A few days later there was a revolt in Rome and Henry fled the city, going to Tuscany, where he/she spent two months ensuring the loyalty of the province, which is vital on the route between Rome and Lombardy. In the spring I was in Pavia and there, even though there was no near misses open rebellion, the imperial authority was still precarious. Enrique took administrative measures for the control of Lombardy, providing full legal powers to two permanent missi. Did not get the entire submission of Lombardy until after the death of Arduino, a year later. Its main supporters, the Marquis Manfredo of Turin and his brother, Bishop Alarico de Asti, requested imperial favor; Enrique instituted the Bavarian clerics Pilgrim as Chancellor for Italy and its management got to finally pacify the Lombardy in just two years.

During the stay of Henry in Italy, Bolesław of Poland, not only had not sent the promised troops, but that it had tried to wrest control of Bohemia to Udalrico. The Emperor prepared a thorough campaign and put together three Army Corps to conquer Poland (1015), of which those of the North and the South were rejected; the Center, led in person by the Emperor, was put in rout after crossing the Oder and the rearguard was destroyed along with the Bober. The Emperor spent the year 1016 occupied in Burgundy, while Poland suffered attacks by Vladimir the great of Russia. At the beginning of the year following Bolesław agreed to negotiate with Henry, but few efforts to negotiate Polish led the emperor to launch a new campaign against Poland in August 1017, which a month later returned defeated Germany. However in January 1018 Russian pressure forced Bolesław to ask for peace. The agreements, signed in Bautzen, not involving vassalage by Bolesław, but allowed the emperor to retain Bavaria as a fief and brought the peace he/she so much needed.

Inside there were disorders in almost all regions: in the upper Lorraine and Luxembourg their brothers-in-law claims did not cease until November 1017, when Enrique de Luxemburgo received the Duchy of Bavaria; in the lower Lorraine Duke Godfrey had seen their rights disputed by the counts of Leuven Lambert (died 1015) and Gerardo of Alsace. These clashes brought disturbances of the peace, which only ended after the Concorde and submission to the Emperor signed the Assembly of Nijmegen March 1018; in Saxony the main problems were derivatives of the confrontations between the nobles and the Bishops; in Burgundy, from 1006, during the reign of weak Rodolfo III, there were disorders that Enrique II had tried to control. There was a candidate for the throne, the count Otto-William, Lord of the inheritances that would later be known as Franche-Comté, which rejected an imperial expedition to 1016. Enrique had to alternate their wars against Poland and operations to keep Rodolfo III on the throne and the peace of Bautzen left him free to deal with in the heart of Burgundy. In February 1018 relieved Rodolfo III of sovereignty over Burgundy, who himself but the local nobles refused to accept his power and any inheritance law in the future.

In April of 1020 Pope Benedicto VIII traveled to Germany, in Fulda confirmed the Foundation of the see of Bamberg and consecrated the Cathedral, placed under a special papal protection. But the main reason for the Pontiff's visit was to seek help from the Emperor against the Byzantines in southern Italy. In this way he/she returned to engage Henry in the Affairs of Italy. He/She spent the rest of the year engaged in small bells, including one against Baldwin, count of Flanders. In June 1021 it was decided on a diet in Nijmegen the participation of the Emperor in the Duchy of Benevento and Enrique joined papal, swollen by Norman contingent troops in December. The army was divided into three bodies, one of them commanded by pilgrim of Cologne, who managed to conquer Capua. Salerno was also conquered and the Corps commanded by the emperor took Troy. But the Germans had removed in the autumn of 1022 because the plague caused havoc among their ranks.

In 1023 Enrique requested the participation of King Roberto de Francia to make it to collaborate with him on the reform of the Church. Both monarchs were found on 11 August at Ivois and agreed to hold a meeting in Pavia where the participation of Italian and German bishops. The Synod did not occur due to the death of Henry.

Ecclesiastical policy

In its policy of conciliation, Enrique II grasped the importance of the ecclesiastical order for the political purposes. The reform undertaken by the Emperor over the German clergy was favoured by the monastic revival, which from Cluny spread the Lorraine. In any case Enrique continued the policy begun by Otto I, supported by churches, dioceses and abbeys of the Kingdom. He/She participated everything he/she could on the designation of the prelates and used to bishops and Abbots as imperial officers, who demanded unconditional obedience. It reinforced the power of bishoprics and abbeys through donations and delivery of royalties, and devoted special attention to Headquarters management and reform of the monasteries. Inspired by the Cluniac reform favored the re-establishment of monastic life, which from the mid century stretched radially from the monastery of Gorze, along with Metz. The creation of the bishopric of Bamberg not only brought over their region a simple literacy, but it became a focal point of culture, an important library and whose school spread culture by all Germany.

Bibliography

DIEGO HERNANDO, M. The Empire in medieval Europe. Madrid, 1996.

HALLER, j. and DANNENBAUER, H. From the Carolingians to the Staufen. Old vintage of the German Emperors (900-1250). Mexico D. f., 1974.

THOMPSON, J.W. Feudal Germany. Chicago, 1928.

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