Biography of King of Inglaterra Enrique III (1207-1272)

King of England, son of Juan Sin Tierra and Isabella of Angoulême, born in 1207 and died in 1272. He/She occupied the throne in 1216, after the death of his father, when he/she was just nine years old, for which a period of Regency was established. The situation was critical: the country was in rebellion and French troops occupied the South and the East of England. The Regency was entrusted to Guillermo Marshall, who, aided by the Papacy, got Luis IX will withdraw from England.

Struggles between aristocratic factions back did obtain the favor of the King who systematically rested on the foreign advisors of his court, which provoked the displeasure of the English nobles. This situation is added the fact that the King refused to abide by the Magna Carta signed by his father. In 1228 of Burg became the real ruler of England, until he/she was replaced in 1232 by Pedro des Roches, Bishop of Winchester, Chief of the foreign party. With it, the influx of foreigners to the senior positions of the Administration reached intolerable levels for the English nobility, which was on the verge of revolt, only at the last minute dismissal of des Roches was able to save the country from civil war.

In 1236 the King married Eleanor of Provence. This brought with it his Provencal counselors, which were in charge of the administration. At the time, Henry carried out a series of campaigns in Sicily in support of the Papacy, which made increasing discontent among his subjects, who refused in 1242 to help you. Two years later, to the return of the King of their campaigns, most of the clergy and nobles protested their policies and fees that it entailed. The King ignored the claims that were made to him and the situation worsened further when they entered into Government in 1246 new foreign advisors and made grow taxes to support increasingly larger expenditures of the Court.

Two years later arose disagreements between the monarch and his brother-in-law Simon de Montfort, until then its main Defender. These disagreements caused Simon popped into the side of the enemies of the King. Enrique then committed another mistake, at the request of the Papacy, in 1255, pledged to cover the costs of the conquest of Sicily, whose throne was promised to his son. A Parliament met at Westminster in 1258, directed by Simon de Monfort, which forced the King to promise reforms and accept arbitration by counselors elected by Parliament. That same year the Parliament met again, this time in Oxford, and there were enacted the so-called provisions of Oxford, which returned management fees and the main titles to the English nobility, as well as being reserved for this actual control. In addition, he/she renounced the Sicilian project and signed peace with France.

The King wasn't willing to admit this clipping of its authority and in 1261, got the annulment of the provisions by the papacy and imprisoned some of the nobles who had acquired important titles. He/She immediately returned to rule as before. The barons revolted and the King required arbitration of Luis IX, which definitively overturned the provisions of Oxford. The indignant noble captained by Simon de Monfort rebelled in 1264. The fight spread over three years, up to that strains between the noble party made that Simon was defeated and captured by Eduardo I, son of the King. Thus the King recovered his authority and the barons, more disunited than ever, were subjected to his Government, which until the death of the monarch passed without further incidents.

Succeeded him on the throne his son Eduardo, who was who had really achieved peace in the Kingdom by forcing his father after the victory, not to be too hard with the defeated. Enrique was more concerned of art and religion that the political affairs, was overly controlled by his wife and the Court surrounding him, without being able to see the difficulties of his Kingdom. It lacked full of military and political genius which caused continuous problems in his reign.

JACJ