Biography of Ana. Queen of Gran Bretaña e Irlanda Estuardo (1665-1714)

Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 1702, in the year 1708 received the title of Queen of Great Britain, position that he/she held until his death. Born in London 6 February 1665 and died Kensington August 1, 1714.

Biographical synthesis

Daughter of James II and Ana Hyde, despite the condition of Catholics from their parents was educated according to the principles of the Anglican Church. Married Prince Jorge from Denmark, despite numerous attempts by both to an heir to the Crown, in the year 1700 after the death of his son Guillermo, Ana, in the year 1683 in those moments Princess of Wales, gave his consent after death the Crown of England passed to the House of Hanover. So Anna was the last member of the family of Stuart to occupy the throne of England. Before his arrival in power supported at all times the King Guillermo III, while this had overthrown his father, and after the death of his sister María II took over the post of Regent on several occasions. During his reign, while initially gave priority to the military campaigns on the continent, the Queen changed the orientation of its policy after the dismissal of the first Duke of Marlborough and then gave priority to the use of the Navy. Thus even if Ana was supporter of the Tories (conservatives) to occupy most of the political charges, the coming to power of Robert Harley gave access to the whigs (Liberal). Recent years Ana sick and virtually alone remained in power to the moderate Charles Talbot, which was commissioned to organize after the Queen's death in August 1714, the coronation of Jorge I.

Life of Anna Stuart

Second daughter of King Jacobo II and Ana Hyde, spent the first years of his life at the Court of his uncle, the English monarch Carlos II, due to which this wanted his nieces to remain faithful to the Anglican Church, since both Jacobo, in those years Duke of York, and the aforementioned Ana Hyde had converted to Catholicism. Since his youth the princesa Ana showed signs of feeling a great antipathy for his father and even if at any time we can talk about that it broke relations with his family, possibly being a Protestant led her to hold some misgivings toward his parents. Ana received a careful and very soon education showed the great interest felt by the sciences and literature. Described by his contemporaries as a woman of good taste, as well as his sister María, always paid great attention to interior decoration and even gave name to a Baroque style called Queen Anne (Queen Anne).

On the occasion of a diplomatic agreement between the Court of Carlos II and of Cristian V Denmark, their marriage was concluded with the younger brother of the Danish King, Prince Jorge, that got married July 28, 1683, when he/she was aged 18, in the Royal Chapel of St. James. Everything seems to indicate that there was love between them, but both felt a great affection for the other, and although he/she has been discussed occasionally sexual orientation of Ana, saying that this might be lesbian, are numerous tests that indicate that he/she maintained a good relationship with her husband, which was attentive at all times to their desires and accompanied her until his death, in the year 1708, in the most bitter moments of his life.

From the year 1683 until 1702 Anna, who, since his youth, gave samples of many health problems, became pregnant 18 times, so during these complicated pregnancies at least 6 occasions suffered a miscarriage, 6 babies were born dead and 5 that they were born with life, only his son Guillermo, named Duke of Gloucester, came to 11 years. Some researchers suggest as a possible cause of the death of the Princes problems with rheumatism Ana suffered since his youth, in addition to possibly due to his obesity, this must have had a very high blood pressure which hindered greatly to carry pregnancies to term. In this way should highlight that at age 35, in the year 1700, the future Queen of England was practically invalid because of their multiple ailments. In the year 1701, after the death of the mentioned Duke of Gloucester last year, Ana definitively renounced the idea of giving an heir to the Crown, that give its approval so that after his death the throne was occupied by the descendants of King James I, members of the House of Hanover.

Traditionally has been considered that the circle of friends that surrounded the Princess since his youth, especially her Lady-in-waiting Sara Jennings Churchill, had a notable influence on political decisions taken years later as Queen and Princess, but some researchers argue that Ana was deeply limited by his delicate health, was able to take important decisions for herself. Thus in the year 1688 he/she strongly supported the candidacy of Guillermo de Orange, which after overthrow his father-in-law Jacobo II, ruled under the name of Guillermo III to the throne and at all times the Princess collaborated with his brother-in-law while it stayed in power. This mode following the establishment in power of Guillermo III and María II, when it was shown that they could not have children, was named Princess of Wales and when her sister died, January 7, 1695, Ana served on several occasions of Regent when the King is absent from England.

Ana Estuardo was proclaimed Queen at the age of 37, after the death of Guillermo III, in March 1702. Arrival to the throne occurred at a critical moment in European history, since at this time the war of the Spanish succession was fought and clashes between Wighs and Tories in Parliament were constant. The new Queen who felt throughout his life a great animosity towards Catholics, since his arrival in power reaffirmed the authority regarding religious Anglican Church, so there would be no doubt about the official religion of his Kingdom. In foreign policy Ana considered, possibly on the advice of the first Duke of Marlborough, that to stop the hegemony of the French monarchy was necessary to maintain the English armies on the continent, so gave priority initially developed by this in land campaigns, while the conservatives (Tories) were of the view that England should strengthen the Navy to successfully confront their enemies. But it should be noted that while it disagreed with the parameters of the conservative policy in this regard, Ana committed most of the political charges, thus excluding the nation's Government Wighs.

Intrigue in these years were consistent in the Court since the influence of the Duchess of Marlborough, the aforementioned Sara Jennings Churchill, exerted on the Queen for that reason while her husband continued maintaining his position as head of the British army, in the year 1707 Sara lost the favour of the Queen was not well seenwhich showed felt special predilection since then by Abigail Marsham, the lover of Robert Harley, who held a post in the Administration, and years later became the first Duke of Oxford. Thus when your favorite began having problems with his lover, this saw as the Queen forced his resignation from the Government, although Harley had gotten that some members of the party Wighs occupy important posts in the Administration, so that foreign policy was modified and in 1711 Anna pushed for there is the resignation of the Duke of Marlborough, and since that time priority was given to the Navy to develop.

Internal policy is that highlight during the reign of Anna was the unification of the Scottish Parliament and the English, after arduous negotiations, which had as a result that this was named Queen of Great Britain in the year 1708, becoming the first English monarch who received this title.

The last years of Ana Estuardo occupied power Charles Talbot, which highlighted by a moderate policy that sought to ensure that the succession to the throne would be peaceful. Thus both Talbot and the Queen managed to put an end to the approaches made by some Tories, jealous of the dominance that had reached the Wighs in recent years, to the half-brother of this, the son of María de Modena Jacobo, which saw their aspirations to take the English throne were blocked because of its Catholic status. But despite the smooth running of the Affairs of State, the end of the reign of Ana was surrounded by bitterness for her, since he/she spent his last years almost in complete solitude deeply tortured by the pain he/she suffered, which eventually led her to death August 1, 1714, at Kensington Palace, when he/she was 49 years old.

Bibliography

CEPEDA, j., MARTIN, M., FRANCO, g., MARIN, f., MARTÍNEZ, e., CAPEL, R. Handbook of Universal history. The 18th century. (Madrid, history 16, 1992).

VICENS VIVES, J. modern general history. 18th - 20th. (Barcelona, Vicens Vives, 1997).

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