Swiss mathematician born 15 April 1707 in Basel and died in Petersburgo (Russia) on September 18, 1783. One of the most important mathematicians of history, noted mainly for his calculus.
His father, who was a Protestant Minister, earmarked it to an ecclesiastical career. However, he/she renounced this idea to see the progress of your child in the study of the sciences and did receive lessons from his friend Johann Bernoulli. Soon it became one of the most gifted disciples of this great mathematician.
With 19 years he/she obtained the second prize for a report on the mast of the ship. Moved to Petersburgo called by Queen Catherine I. There he/she obtained the title of Professor of mathematics. In 1741 was invited by the King of Prusia Federico el Grande Berlin. In 1766 he/she returned to Petersburgo, where he/she died in 1783.
The mathematical work of Euler is very wide. Highlighted by possessing a large capacity calculation and a very creative mathematical intuition. His scientific production is impressive, both in quantity and in quality and variety. He/She wrote most of the thousand of memories, while in the last years of his life he/she was completely blind and should dictate their work to any of his children or disciples.
His most important contributions to mathematics are given in the study of prime numbers, the theory of algebraic equations, in infinitesimal calculus and its applications in the natural sciences, especially astronomy.
One of the issues addressed was a type of calculation of minimum known as calculus of variations. An example of this type of question is the famous problem which is to find the curve that encloses more area with less perimeter.
His most outstanding work is the introduction to analysis of the infinite (1748) which is the first systematic treatise of infinitesimal calculus. This work has had much influence on the further development of this branch of mathematics.
One of the results better known Euler is convex polyhedra formula:
Faces vertices = edges 2