Politician and French lawyer, head of State between 1906 and 1913, born in Mezin (France) on November 6, 1841 and died in the same city in 1931.
Son of a notary, first studied at the Lyceum of Angoulême and graduated in law at the University of Paris in 1862. He/She opened a law firm in Nerac, who remained until in 1870 he/she began his political career when he/she was elected Mayor of Nerac. He/She militated in the ranks of the Republican left, which included among its candidates for Deputy. It was chosen for this position in 1876. In 1882 he/she served as Undersecretary of State in the Cabinet of Jules Ferry. That same year he/she was elected Minister of the Interior with Duclerc. On 29 March the following year (1883) he/she succeeded the same Duclerc as Chairman, besides being in charge of Foreign Affairs. His failure in the Senate made him to present his resignation, although it came to occupy the Ministry of the Interior. In this position, he/she stressed his opposition to the project of the Municipal Council of Paris for a Federation of the French municipalities on the occasion of the centenary of 1789. Uploading to the Presidency Carnot (1887) was commissioned him to Fallières the formation of the Government, work which continued after the replacement of Carnot for Tirand, who appointed him Minister of Justice; He/She held this position until 1889, when it passed to the Ministry of public instruction. It regained the portfolio of Justice in 1890 with Freycinet. In 1889 was elected President of the Senate instead of Loubet , who was succeeded in the Presidency of the Republic on January 17, 1906 (449 votes in favour, with the help of the left against the Doumer 371). He/She took office on February 18, 1906. There are several actions that stand out during his tenure: he/she promulgated the law of separation of Church and State, and participated in the rehabilitation of Dreyfus.
Also during his tenure was the Algeciras Conference, which got the link between France and Morocco. The achievement of the Alliance between France and Russia favored and improved relations with Italy. He/She participated in the signing of the Franco-German Treaty of 1912 about Morocco and the Congo. He/She also signed a treaty with Spain on the Moroccan problem. Prosperity reigned during his tenure. It carried out reforms in the army and the Navy and appointed Joffre Supreme Head of the army. On January 17, 1913 he/she was replaced as President of the Republic by Raymond Poincaré. That year abandoned politics and retired to the countryside, where he/she remained until his death, in 1931.