Politician and Italian Economist, born on February 6, 1908 in Pieve Santo Stefano and died in Rome on November 20, 1999. He was Prime Minister of Italy five times between the years 1954 and 1987, and interim President of the Republic during the months of June and July 1978. Fanfani was the main promoter of the coalition of center-left, who directed the majority of the Italian Governments of the 1960s.
In 1936, he began to teach history of the economy at the Catholic University of Milan, Center where he had obtained the Bachelor's degree in economics. Their opposition forced the fascist regime of Mussolini to exile to Switzerland in 1943; When returned to his country, in 1945, after World War II, he joined the Christian Democrats, a party that became part of the Steering Committee from the Congress of Naples. He was elected Deputy of the constituent Assembly in 1946, and was part of the different governments led by Alcide de Gaspari. In 1947 he was put in charge of the Ministry of labour and Social Welfare, where he remained until 1950 and from which promoted a plan for the reconstruction of the cities and the countryside. Emphasis put on housing construction of low-cost workers, in the creation of unions of non-communist affiliation and the decrease in the number of unemployed. In 1951 he held the portfolio of agriculture, where he promoted a program of land reform. He was appointed Interior Minister in the last Government formed by Gaspari, in 1953.
On January 12, 1954 he formed his first cabinet, but was forced to resign on January 30, when his Government program was rejected by Parliament. That same year he began to exercise his teaching at the University of Rome, and in June he was elected General Secretary of the Christian Democrats, which meant the victory of the left wing of the organization led by Fanfani. From his new post he carried out a reorganisation of her party which was reflected in an increase in the number of members. The victory of the Christian Democrats in the general elections of 1958 did receive the order by the President to form a new Government. This constituted in July 16 Christian Democrat Ministers and four Social Democrats, based its program on the application of moderate social reforms, a strong investment in education, extension of the system of Social Security and the application of antitrust policy. His efforts were decisive for the candidacy of Italy to the U.N. Security Council obtained the victory. The pressures exerted by the right wing of the Christian Democrats destabilized the Government, so Fanfani presented the resignation as Prime Minister on January 26, 1959; days later, on February 1, he resigned from his position in the party.
In July 1960, coinciding with the strong public reaction to the increase in the activities of neo-fascist organizations and the failure of the Tambroni Government, he returned to receive the task of forming a Government, which was composed of members of all the currents of the Christian Democrats. He reformed the Cabinet in 1962 to make way for democratic and Republican Ministers. This new Government was the first in the history of Italy who had the parliamentary support of the Italian Socialist Party. The main actions of this Government were the nationalization of electricity, the decentralization of the Administration for the regions and the State planning of the economy. He resigned as Prime Minister in may, 1963, due to the failure of his party in the April elections in which fell from 42.3% to 38.3% of the votes. Foreign Minister in March 1965 in the Government chaired by his coreligionist, Aldo Moro, in whose condition was elected on September 21, President of the General Assembly of the United Nations which had as its mission to prepare the visit of Pope Paul VIwas appointed. He was forced to resign as Minister in December 1965, when met their participation in secret talks with Vietnamese leaders to have peace with the United States.
In February 1966 was appointed again Minister of Foreign Affairs, who left in May 1968. Member of the Senate since the elections of 1968, presided over such a camera from that year until 1973. In 1971, he presented his candidacy for the Presidency of the Republic, but was defeated by Giovanni Leon. He was appointed as one of the five life Senators permitted by the Constitution of Italy on March 10, 1972. Again served as the general Secretary of the Christian Democrats since 1973, a charge from which was radically opposed to collaboration with the Communists. His public image was strongly impaired by his campaign to abolish the law on abortion. When the Christian Democrats lost the elections of 1975 it requested a vote of confidence among parliamentarians of his party, which was defeated by 103 votes to 69, so he was forced to resign. In April 1976 he achieved the Presidency of his party, but he resigned in October in protest against the coalition Government with the Communists formed by Andreotti.
In June and July 1978 he held the Presidency of the Republic acting way. Commissioned by Sandro Pertini , he presided over a new Government between December 1982 and August 1983, and finally led the cabinet which was commissioned to prepare the June 1987 elections. In the Government of G. Goria (July 1987 - February 1988) directed the Ministry of the Interior and in the presided over by De Mita (April 1988 - July 1989) he held the portfolio of the budget. On May 12, 1996 it became part of the parliamentary group of the Italian people's Party in the Senate, and from May 30 of the same year of the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and emigration.
He has authored several works on history of the economy including: Cattolicismo, e protestantesimo nella formaziones storica of capitalism (1944); Storia delle doctrine economiche (1943-1945); Storia del lavoro in Italy gives it fine del secolo XIV agli inizi of the 18th (1943) and Preparazione all´attivita economica nei secoli XIV-XVI in Italy (1952).
MAMMARELLA, g., L' Italy Contemporanea.: 1943-1989. (Bologna: Il Mulino, 1990).
SASSOUN, D., Contemporary Italy: politics, economy and society since 1945. (London: Longman, 1986).
WISKEMANN, e., Italy since 1945. (London: Macmillan, 1971).