Biography of Felipe de Suabia. Emperador de Alemania (1178-1208)

Emperor of the Holy Empire, born in 1178 and died 21 June 1208 in Bamberg. During his short reign, always contested by the Guelphs, Germany was convulsed in a continuing civil war. His premature death prevented him from consolidating his victory.

Youngest son of the Emperor Federico I Barbarossa, Felipe was appointed to career ecclesiastical and named Archbishop of Würzburg in 1191. On the death of his second brother, Federico, he/she left an ecclesiastical career and received the Tuscany, which had belonged to the Countess Matilde, while to his older brother, Henry VI, was crowned Emperor. With the death of another of his brothers, Conrad, Felipe received the Duchy of Swabia. The death of Enrique VI in 1197, Swabian Felipe, wanted to ensure for his nephew, Federico (future Federico II), the imperial throne, but opposition from Otto of Brunswick, son of the Duke of Bavaria, Henry the lion, made the Hohenstaufen to renounce the designation of Federico child and chose King to Felipe 6 March 1198 in Mühlhausen (Thuringia). A year before Felipe had married the Byzantine Princess Irene, daughter of Isaac the Ángel, which meant that it hoped to stick any day over his head the crowns of the two Empires, the East and the West (was the main attraction of Swabian Felipe to second years later the crusade preached by Pope Innocent III). September 8, 1198, Felipe was crowned Emperor in Mainz by Archbishop of Taranto and Trier, while the candidate of the Guelphs, Otto, was crowned at the same time in Aachen. Immediately broke the war in Germany.

Initially the two applicants were young and depended on the support of their parties. Felipe could count on Germany's South, Brandenburg, Saxony and Lusatia and Holstein. The forces were matched and the new Pope, innocent III, took the opportunity to intervene in the German Royal election. In 1201 Otto negotiated in secret with the Pope and got their support, obtaining papal confirmation, and the prohibition of Felipe; the Kings of Denmark also followed the aspirations of Otto and Bohemia (the latter is had opted at first for Felipe). The Ghibellines protested against the intervention of the papal, answering Pope innocent with a statement that space for centuries became one of the foundations of the papal policy towards Germany. However the Pope's decision had no decisive effect and in the Empire continued the war. Felipe lost the support of the landgrave of Thuringia, who went to the Guelph side, but instead Oton was deprived of its powerful ally Ricardo the Lionheart (died 1099). The war was developing favorably to Felipe, who defeated the bohemos and in 1205 was re-elected and crowned in Aachen by Adolfo de Colonia. The submission of Cologne (where was Otto) in 1206 left no doubt of its victory. That year he/she was recognized by Pope Innocent III and the talks were initiated to stop the civil war.

The Emperor Felipe handed 1206 the sovereignty of Livonia, constant dispute between Germanic domination and the Russian territory, to the Teutonic Knights. He/She was killed by revenge by Otto of Wittelsbach. Shortly after his wife died of disgust. Thus Otto (IV) Brunswick met owner of the Empire. The daughter of Swabian Felipe, Beatriz, married Otto IV in 1212.

Bibliography

DIEGO HERNANDO, M. The Empire in medieval Europe. Madrid, 1996.

HALLER, j. and DANNENBAUER, H. From the Carolingians to the Staufen. Old vintage of the German Emperors (900-1250). Mexico D. f., 1974.

SCHARAMM, P. Kaiser, Rom und Renovatio: Studien zur Geschichte des römischen Erneuerungsgedankens vom Ende des karolingischen Reiches bis zum Investiturstreit. Darmstadt, 1957.

THOMPSON, J.W. Feudal Germany. Chicago, 1928.

JMMT