Biography of King of Francia El Hermoso Felipe IV (1268-1314)

King of France, called the fair, son of Felipe III the bold and his first wife Isabella of Aragon, daughter of Jaime I. Born in 1268 and died November 29, 1314 in Fontainebleau. He/She succeeded his father in 1285, but it was not until 6 January 1286 when it was consecrated in Rheims, together with his wife Joan, daughter of Henry I of Navarre, which had previously married.

Just climb to the throne devoted all its efforts to put an end to the war against Aragon which his father had begun in 1283. In this way, 19 February 1291 was signed the Treaty of Tarascon with Alfonso III of Aragon that the war was concluded. In 1294, on the occasion of a local among sailors conflict English and Normans, Felipe IV declared war to Eduardo I of England, despite the fact that he/she did everything possible to reconcile itself with the French King, and even send his own brother, Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, which gave all sorts of explanations to Felipe IV in order to avoid a war that nothing needed to be the monarch of Englandplunged into a noble rebellion. Felipe IV took advantage of the refusal of the King English to appear before the Court of peers to declare confiscated their goods in France, which brought to the Crown (several fortresses and the territories of Guyenne and Gascony), this forced Eduardo to declare war.

Eduardo I was a brilliant soldier, who had managed to dominate Wales and Scotland, and that was about to submit to the nobles of the realm, scrambled as a consequence of the Magna Carta, but England was exhausted after so many fights and much of the nobility refused to come to the aid of their King. For his part, Felipe was much worst military, but his country possessed the wealth that was missing to England. After initial skirmishes Eduardo I admitted, in 1297, the nobles the privileges of the Magna Carta, which earned them is to their cause; on the other hand, tried to attract to his side to the count of Flanders. Since the conflict not opted in favour of any of the part, in October 1297 by Treaty of Vyre-Saint-Bavo, will put an end to it. But it was not until 1303 when peace was signed officially by the Treaty of Paris. Sometime between 1299 and 1303, the Scottish Knight William Wallace, traveled to France to try to obtain, if successful, the help of Felipe IV in its war against Eduardo I. The most important result of this conflict was the wedding between Eduardo II, heir to the English throne, and the daughter of Felipe IV, Isabella of France, who was held in 1309.

One of the most important aspects of the reign of Felipe IV were its ongoing clashes with the Papacy, which began in 1296 with Boniface VIII on the occasion of the famous Bull Clericis lay, posed by the reaffirmation of the religious power of the storm, which was resumed the old complaint of the investiture conflict. The lay Clericis was harshly answered by the French King, so Bonifacio had to rectify in July 1297, with the publication of the bull Etsi's status, in which it undertook to renounce the Catholic claims of the lay Clericis. Felipe IV was devoted entirely to consolidate the unity of his Kingdom and increase his power within him, so it could not admit the papal intervention. Bonifacio, last exponent of the theocratic papal monarchy, agreed to this rectification since he/she needed the French help to counteract the power of the Aragonese, which stretched through the Mediterranean and especially Italy, after Sicily. But the Alliance between Felipe IV and Alberto I, Duke of Austria, to which Boniface regarded as a usurper of the imperial throne; coupled with complaints that the French bishops pouring constantly against their King; the Jubilee which was held in Rome, and the choice of Bernardo Saisset as Bishop of Pamiers, made directly by the Pope, without consulting the monarch, made the situation between both magnatarios to deteriorate quickly.

In 1301 Bonifacio went to Felipe IV the so-called Asculta fili, which it sent to burn publicly. In 1302 the Pope published his famous Bull Unam sanctam, which triggered that the following year, while Boniface had commanded the cardinal Lemoine to negotiate, Felipe IV ordered to Guillaume de Nogaret nothing less than the deposition of the Pope. Prior to this, Felipe IV held a solemn meeting in Paris, which was meticulously prepared and assembled by Guillaume de Nogaret, who condemned publicly, trumped-up charges, Bonifacio, accusing him of heresy and libertine, as well as enemy of the Church. Bonifacio became strong in his castle of Agnani, but at the end he/she was assaulted by the mercenaries of Guillaume. The Pope, abandoned by everyone capitulated and was imprisoned in his castle. On the third day of her abduction broke out a popular riot that managed to free the captive Pope, while Guillaume wounded fleeing towards Paris. Bonifacio was seriously ill and died a month later. Bonifacio VIII succeeded a Pope of transition, Benedict XI who died the following year, in 1304. Then took charge of the papacy of Pope Clement V, French, resident origin in Avignon and clear puppet of the monarch.

With Clement V in the solio Pontifical occurred one of the most important facts of the reign of Felipe IV, the abolition of the powerful Templar order. Due to the religious nature of the order, prohibiting enjoy members of personal fortunes, but not so to own order, which is taking charge of the riches of the members once they were admitted. For this reason the order grew thanks to the contributions of its members, and various donations and castles that were getting all over Europe, and especially in France, where he/she arrived to form a parallel to the monarchy's power. But a momentous event took place in the year 1290, Muslims recovered San Juan de Acre, last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land, so the order lost its raison d ' ĂȘtre. Given this, Felipe IV saw the possibility of discarding a powerful obstacle to their unit plans of France. On the one hand, the Crown was deeply indebted with the Templars, so its dissolution would wipe out debt, in addition to enrich the Crown to seize their properties; on the other hand, the ideal of a centralized and authoritarian State could not support the existence of a State within a State, which is what meant the order of the Temple, since it was completely independent of the monarchy.

To get rid of the Templars, Felipe IV returned to resort to Guillaume de Nogaret, which again manufactured false evidence, forcing Pope Clement V outlaw members of the order. The papal order arrived the 14 September 1307 and her accusing its members of all kinds of heinous acts and heresies, that justified the measure and the subsequent repression against the Templars. The Pope did nothing, in the seven years that lasted the process by stopping the indiscriminate persecution against the Templars. At the behest of his and Clement V is called the Council of Vienne in 1311. The apparent reasons for the conciliar call were two: the reform of the Church and the recovery of the Holy land. These two topics for discussion served as a lure to settle two other issues of special interest to the French King: the attempt to posthumously convict the former Pope Bonifacio VIII, and the final suppression of the Templar order.

The reign of Felipe IV was marked, even, by another scandalous process, trial, and imprisonment against their three daughters, Margaret of Burgundy ( Luis X the stubbornwoman), Joan of Burgundy (wife of Felipe V) and Blanche of Burgundy (wife of Carlos IV), who were accused of adultery in 1314 by the husband of Margaret, Luis stubborn. He/She starred in a series of prosecutions against the Lombards and the Jews, as well as some members of the nobility.

Felipe IV internal politics was characterized by the relentless pursuit of resources with which to face the disastrous situation of public finances. Therefore carried out a rigorous tax policy that forced to pay high taxes to the footballer clergy, which as we have already seen motivated his confrontation with the papacy. Felipe IV was the first monarch to establish a flat tax that became effective in proportion to property that is possessed. The alterations made by his order in the currency, produced in Paris a sedition, which was immediately suppressed in 1312.

You worry about the opinion of his subjects, and in order to meet her, created a series of meetings in which nobles and the citizens gathered to elect representatives who would have the right to raise their complaints before the King. Clear history of the States General.

In foreign policy, highlighted a series of uprisings in Flanders, where the monarch had to face. In may 1302 exploded a violent uprising in Bruges that hardly could be controlled. Flanders had continuously supported by England, who saw in the seditious region the best way to weaken France. By the Treaty of Athis-sur-Orge in 1305 June ended, at least during his reign, to Flemish uprisings. Intervened in the Affairs of the Empire, whom he/she snatched several cities well by conquest, either by voluntary surrender.

Felipe IV was married to Joan of Navarre, with whom he/she had a total of seven children, four of them boys, of whom three were Kings: Luis X, Felipe V and Carlos IV; daughters, Isabel married Eduardo IIde Inglaterra, as we have already said. November 29, 1314 died Felipe IV, one of the most important Kings of France due to the events that starred.