French theologian, born in 1651 in the castle of Fénelon, in Gascony, and died in 1715, whose real name was Francois Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon in Cambrai.
He was preceptor of the Dauphin and Archbishop of Cambrai. He defended the quietist ideas opposed to Bossuet. The controversy was settled by Pope Innocent XII, who condemned Fénelon to exile. It was a remarkable educator sacred, excellent speaker and composed numerous works on theology, philosophy, politics, history and literature.
In his most mature philosophical work, Traité de l'existence et des attributs de Dieu (1712), accuses the influence of Descartes and Malebranche. He argues that the idea of the infinite in our spirit can not come but the same infinite. It defends the possibility of proving the existence of God. God we see it at all, or more exactly, in God we see all things. The freedom linking an exclusive Act of the divine will, which was able to do that we would necessarily good, like the angels, but he preferred to make us free because it combines with the perfection of the creator.
His writings in the educational field are: Aventures de Télémaque (1699), 18 books of adventures written for the dolphin, which trace the ideal of the sovereign who knows understand and guide their people and De l' Éducation des filles (1687). They proposed the foundations of education in general, especially for adolescents. The child can go learning since the early years, without pressure and without constraints, the moral and religious principles. But we must prevent the excess of theoretical teaching. Fenelon understands the education of girls in order to its highest function, as it is the address of the House, but he wants for them who know how to read and write well, and who know the accounts and the rudiments of private law. Finally, in his book examination of conscience sur les duties of the royaute, develops the opening to show problems.