Biography of Cristina Fernández de Kirchner (1953-VVVV)

Policy and Argentine lawyer, born on February 19, 1953 in Tolosa, Argentina. Elected President of the Republic of Argentina in October 2007.

Studied at the Faculty of juridical sciences and social of the National University of La Plata, where he/she attended the first year of psychology, career which later abandoned by the law. At this University he/she met Néstor Carlos Kirchner Ostoicmilitant, like her, of the University Peronist youth (JUP), belonging to the Peronist party (PJ) founded by Peron. On March 9, 1975 they contracted civil marriage in La Plata, established his residence in Rio Gallegos, capital of Santa Cruz, and had their first child, named Max, in 1977. He/She completed her law studies in 1979, although some voices of civil society questioning to arrive to finish the race.

Marriage was devoted to advocacy and invested in real estate, keeping his political activity in recess while the dictatorship in the country began to intensify. The first to return to the political commitment was her husband, Néstor Kirchner, during the transition to democracy, which came with the victory of Raúl Alfonsín. In 1987, Néstor Kirchner got the Mayor of Río Gallegos, after gaining in influence and popularity, and once secured control of the Peronist party in the town. In 1989, Cristina Fernández won a seat in the Chamber of deputies of the province of Santa Cruz. In 1990, had her second daughter called Florence.

In parallel with the Executive political career of her husband, which resulted elected Governor of Santa Cruz in 1991, began his career in legislative policy significantly, and chaired the Committee on Constitutional Affairs, powers and regulations. It stood out for being critical of some aspects of the Government of Menem, as neo-liberal policies. On 10 April 1994 Fernández left conventional chosen by Santa Cruz of the constituent Assembly.

He was elected Senator on December 10, 1995, in elections to the upper House of the National Congress, which gave him international fame, what did come to be better known than her husband. This year opposed the second re-election deMenem and allied with Eduardo Alberto Duhalde, Governor of Buenos Aires province in that moment and other senior officials, settling in the National Congress of the Peronist party.

In 1997 it was national Deputy for Santa Cruz and came to hold the post of Vice-President of the Commission for education of the lower House, and already in 1999 carried out its legislative work to oppose the National Executive headed by Fernando de la Rúa, who won in the general election.

The province introduced its own constitutional reform, which made possible the second reelection of Kirchner. Fernández was elected member of the constituent Assembly in 1998 which drew up the amendment.

Fernández regained the seat, from the Senate, in the elections of October 2001, giving PJ the majority in Congress, which aliancista has benefited from the financial meltdown and economic recession of the Government. Fernández became the Chairman of the Committee on Constitutional Affairs of the Senate; Meanwhile, between December 2001 and July 2002, Argentina was plunged into the worst economic, social and political crisis in its history.

While the country recovered, Kirchner strengthened his candidacy for the Presidency for the elections of 2003, although it started with disadvantage since it was not very well known. Even so, he/she told Duhalde, who supported him through the Buenos Aires PJ section, as well as with his wife Cristina, which at the time had some political characteristics superior to her husband (public speaking, fluency media, etc), and that estimated the fact of being the wife of the President but with a different political status and not only as first lady. The front for victory (FPV) of Kirchner presented a completely dissociated incident program in the economic recovery of past governments, and counted in his campaign with the charisma and the ease of Cristina to make against its rivals.

Kirchner was proclaimed President after Menem withdrawal in the second round of the vote count, and thus Cristina became first lady, a role to which he/she added a high category as a professional in-office politics. However, Argentina already knew what it was to have a first lady politicized, with precedent as well known as the wives of Peron: Eva Duarte and María Estela, as well as its coetanea Hilda Beatriz González, Duhalde woman, Minister of Social development and environment interim.

Mrs. Kirchner participated with her husband in all his performances, which generated a tidal wave of popularity: it filled the military and police leadership, he/she remodeled the Supreme Court, dialogue with social organizations ignored, etc.

Cristina began looking for notoriety, became a "first citizen" and not Lady, as he/she wanted to. He/She accompanied her husband on his official agenda, which combined with his own, and controlled down to the last detail: the appearance of his own image, received treatment, etc.

Participation in international meetings and contact with world leaders resulted in that his first relevant experience in this context was a paper in 2003 in London, at the Summit of progressive Governments, which exposed the problem of underdevelopment and poverty from the Latin American point of view, attended by Tony Blair and Gerhard Schröder, British and German leaders respectively. From 2004 multiplied events off the agenda of her husband: lectures in United States with Madeleine Albright, Hillary Clinton, toured Spain with meetings with don Juan Carlos Iand José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero. Subsequently, in 2005, he/she had meetings with the Chilean frontrunner Michelle Bachelet, with French President Jacques Chirac, and the israeli and Palestinian Prime Ministers, Ariel Sharon and Ahmed Qureia, respectively.

Personally, Fernández became involved as a promoter of the Museum of memory in Argentina, and was elected Honorary President of the III International Congress of the language Spanish held in Rosario in 2004.

In 2005 he/she was re-elected as a Senator, that made the hypothesis presented as candidate to the Presidency to take stronger. The popular support was also key to recognize their achievements in the field of external debt, economic recovery and the fight against unemployment and poverty.

At the heart of the PJ internal dissensions made that Fernández would deal with the wife of Duhalde in the National Congress in March 2004, since Kirchner was to take control of the party. Finally, Eduardo Alfredo Fellner, ally of Kirchner, took the election as President following the resignation of the latter.

In 2005, and overcoming accusations and attempts to discredit, was re-elected in the senatorial elections by the province of Buenos Aires as the head of the FPV list, resulting in a position of great power and influence in the upper House.

During 2006, President Kirchner gave increasingly more importance to his wife, even in foreign and domestic policy, growing more and more rumors about his possible candidacy. Even so, the apparent perfect understanding and harmony between the two spouse also knew the verbal disputes between both, fruit of the strong temperaments of both.

In 2007 opinion polls given Fernández great possibilities to win the presidential election, equating it with her husband in voting. Finally, in July of that year, and after several visits and meetings in France, Ecuador, Mexico, Venezuela, Spain and Germany with their respective representatives and mandataries, Kirchner made official who would not be submitted for his re-election and who would leave his wife as a candidate. Fernández made formal his aspiration on 19 July 2007 in an Act applying by the FPV, in the Teatro Argentino of his hometown, where her husband, leaders of trade unions, politicians from across the nation and grandmothers and mothers of Plaza de Mayo were present. In his speech, Fernández stressed on the bases on which was based the Government of her husband, who would also be the basis of his: reconstruction of the democratic constitutional State, model of accumulation and social inclusion and cultural construction. Fernández closed his proclamation with thanks and praise for the President, above all, by the fact of no-show for re-election despite having ample possibilities to continue in office.

During his election campaign of three months, Cristina Fernández more approached the media and gave the first interviews, although mainly to foreign media. In addition, he/she advocated during his term he/she would follow the political line established by her husband previously, as regards the economy, albeit from different points on the left and unions criticized that this growth was due mainly to the favourable international economic situation and export.

In its programme, Fernández called to make progress towards reducing poverty, which affects more than one third of the population, as well as unemployment and the improvement of health and education. Still, he/she ruled not on fueling, criminality and insecurity and the scandals of corruption in the Government of her husband.

Expected of it, by part of European and American Governments and opposition, greater dialogue with business, financial and political power that her husband had developed. As well as be able to modify the relationship that her husband had established with Evo Morales and Hugo Chávez, as that had been too close to them according to their detractors into something. Also in this line expected better relations with Chile, marred during the Kirchner term gas policy, a relaunch of relations with the United States, and the resolution of the conflict with Uruguay for the construction of a paper plant on the Uruguayan side of the Paraná River.

Even with all these conjectures, in the first round of the election polls were giving victory, even on what could be its rival Max, Mauricio Macri, leader of the party would Republican proposal (PRO). Almost without fighting for the vote, his electoral campaign had almost secured the vitoria in the elections, the only doubt was whether I would be elected President in the first or in the second round.

Finally, and with a participation of 74.1%, Fernández won with a 44.9% of the votes the other candidates: Carrio with 22.9%, Lavagna with 16.9%, Rodríguez Saá (7.7%) and several other candidates. Therefore, got twice as many votes obtained by her husband for four years. Also the FPV renewed half of the houses of Congress, and increased its representation with double absolute majority to 153 deputies and 44 senators.After the victory, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner praised the career of her husband as a politician and President, and stressed the importance that sought to give external relations with the MERCOSUR countries and with a solid export.

During his administration, the country was facing serious problems. From the beginning, met with a stiff opposition from the agricultural sector, which required a reduction in specific activity taxes. During the year 2008 fire occurred in the fields of areas adjacent to the capital of the country, which plunged for several days to Buenos Aires in dark fogs brought by the wind. The field situation worsened then, with the persistence of a prolonged drought, which produced the death to countless heads of cattle, situation which the President launched a decree whereby some taxes would be abolished to alleviate the problem.

He traveled to Cuba in January 2009, and met Fidel and Raúl Castro, signing agreements of mutual economic benefits. The representative of the people of the Argentine nation participated in the most important international meetings throughout 2009. At the level of the internal political situation, the large increase in his personal wealth, calculated on a percentage higher than 700%, has resulted in strong resistance in large sectors of opinion, as well as give rise to a judicial investigation. Votes mid-year assumed a severe electoral setback, losing representation in Congress.

In the month of September 2009, Argentine President presented for approval by the Congress a law that should be exercised greater control over the audiovisual sector and the press, to prevent media concentration in few hands, popularly called "gag law". In December, the President faced public protests of citizens against poverty and hunger, since nearly 25% of the inhabitants is at risk, or unprotected. esoo in office the President of the Central Bank, Martín Redrado, for refusing this to reserves to pay foreign debt. In a pulse with the President, the Argentine Senate restored in his position official, endorsing the decision not to spend strategic currency reserves, although the official later resigned.

Investigations by the high increase of the heritage have put pressure on their relatives, among which was a personal Secretary for 15 years, who was forced to resign.