King of Romania born in Sigmaringe, Germany, on August 24, 1865, and died in Sinaia, Romania, on July 20, 1927. It ruled Romania between 1914 and 1927.
Fernando I, Duke of Rumanía was the son of Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, whose nomination for the Spanish throne precipitated the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, and Antonia of Portugal. He/She made his studies at the universities of Tübingen and Leipzig. Because of the resignation of his brother to the throne of Romania, was proclaimed heir in 1889 by his uncle the King Karol I, being the appointment accepted by both chambers. Came into Bucharest as his heir on 1 may, and in 1889 he/she was appointed major general, and Commander of the Second Corps of the army of Romania and inspector of cavalry. He/She also participated in the Senate.
On January 10, 1893, married to María's Save - Coburg and Gotha, had six children. His first son and successor, Karol II, born on October 15, 1893, baptized according to the griego-catolico rite. Thus, the dynasty was strongly consolidated and took a predominant position on the parties since that time.
Before the beginning of the first world war, Romania was quick to declare its neutrality on 4 August, and at first kept it strictly. The death of King Carol in Sinaia on October 10, 1914 provoked the rise to the power of the Crown Prince, Fernando I, who was crowned on October 11.
Despite being a member of the German Hohenzollerndynasty, Fernando I ended breaking treaties signed by his predecessor with the central powers, and in 1916, on 16 August, signed a secret treaty with the allies whereby it undertook to break all economic relationship with Germany, to declare war and to begin an offensive in a few days. The King summoned on 27 August a Council of Ministers that decided to participate in the war, a decision that was disastrous for Romania. In January 1917, throughout the country, with the exception of the Northern Moldova, was in the hands of the Germans. The army lost nearly 300,000 soldiers among dead, wounded and missing, the epidemics are baited in the civilian population and prisoners of war. The union with the allies broke and despite promises of Wilson and Lloyd George, Romania could not receive them no help. The Government gave in and on December 9, 1917 signed the Armistice of Focsani with the Central Empires. In 1918, Transylvania joined Romania, and in the following year was in continuous state of war with Russia and Hungary, by then dominated by the Bolsheviks.
The coronation of the Kings, postponed since the beginning of the war took place in the year 1922. The celebration was carried out in a small town called Alba Julia, where was crowned Miguel the mighty, which managed to gather all Romanian-speaking countries under its mandate.
One of the problems that faced Fernando I was renouncing the throne of his son Carlos at the end of 1925. This disclaimer is extended not only to the throne, but also his title of Member of the Royal family.