Biography of Estanislao Figueras y Moragas (1819-1882)

Estanislao Figueras. Montserrat. Madrid.

Politician and Spanish statesman, born in Barcelona on November 13, 1819 and died in Madrid on November 11, 1882. He graduated in law in 1840 and subsequently directed one of the most prestigious law firms, first in Tarragona, and then in Madrid. Very early he stressed his capacity for oratory, which won him meaning in journalism and in the parliamentary. In 1840 he was closely linked to the progressive party, and shortly afterwards was one of the fathers of the Democratic Party. He had an active participation in the revolutionary movement of 1848, and after joining the current Republican, in 1851 was elected as a Deputy in the Cortes by Tarragona. Three years later he was part of the revolutionary Barcelona Board. In 1855 he achieved the Act of Deputy for the Constituent Cortes, since it would renew in 1862 and 1865.

When Narvaez came to power in 1867, Figueras was forced into exile by the relentless persecution that were subjected the adversaries of the new President, although he would return to Spain shortly later to form part of the revolutionary coalition of 1868. In the year of the revolution, his journalistic activity resulted in the appearance of the journal La equality, organ of federal Republicanism. In 1869 Figueras became the head of the Republican minority in the courts, and there got to be discussed that political system would be preferable for the nation, the monarchy or Republic; When members finally decided by the first and was proclaimed at Amadeo de Saboya as King of Spain, Figueras continued to hold the Deputy Act in the courts without changing their Republican ideas.

When Amadeo I decided to abdicate and proclaimed himself the first Republic (11 February 1873), Estanislao Figueras was elected President of the Executive power. I had the post of President of the Republic since that office would not exist until a Republican Constitution is not enactment. After the failed attempt of Cristino Martos prevent the federal Republic on February 24, 1873, Figueras set out to form his Cabinet. The Council met for the first time was entirely Republican.

Indeed, the name of Figueras displayed constantly attached to Pi y Margall, since this is really considered ideologue of the new Government. The Figueras Cabinet met with all the problems that during the 19th century it had been enquistando; Apart from the constant political conspiracies, resprouted separatism, especially in Catalonia, and, as the Third Carlist War followed its course, various Insubordinations occurred in the State Army.

Figueres Council proceeded to the dissolution of the Assembly and the call for Constituent Cortes for May 1, 1873. Attempts to overthrow the Republican Government did not stop. Martos tried again on 23 March with the support of Estebanez, Governor of Madrid. The coup attempt could be suppressed by the Ministry of the Interior led by Pi y Margall. The problems were accentuated with the onset of the cantonalistas riots. On June 9, 1873, the Constituent Cortes was appointed as President of the Republic, which voted favorably on June 1, to Pi y Margall. Figueras, disappointed, decided to take refuge in France, although for a short time; When he returned, the fate of Ia Spanish Republic was pitch: although it tried, in vain, combining the efforts of all sectors of republicanism, Spain stepped invariably towards the monarchical restoration, stage during which it was losing political prominence. In 1880 he founded the organic Federal Party with Ruiz Zorrilla, who was exiled in Paris.


FERRANDO BAD√ćA, Juan. The first Spanish Republic. (Madrid, 1973).

ARTOLA, Miguel: The revolutionary bourgeoisie, 1808-1874. (Madrid, 1974).