Nature weak and sickly, delegated power in a Palace clique led by the two most important families of the time, that staged continuous clashes: on the one hand the family Naryshkins, who was the second wife of Tsar Alexei; on the other, the family of the Miloslavskys, to which belonged the first wife of his father. Uncle Fyodor, Ivan B. Miloslavsky, made with the effective power of Russia, but was soon displaced by Yazykov and Likhachev.
At the behest of his tutor, and despite their traditional education, the humanist Simeón Polotski introduced in Russia Polish and Latin theological currents. From 1691, the most important figure in the Government of the Tsar was Vasily Golitsyn, author of the most important military reform carried out during the time of Feodor. This consisted of, primarily, the abolition of the Miestnichetsvo, regulation setting the position to be occupied by the boyars in the public administration according to the range of the family to which they belong.
Feodor died in 1682 childless, so arose a succession problem. There were two candidates: the first and most qualified to govern was Pedro, only child of the second wife of Alexei I; the second was Ivan, second son of the first wife of Alexei I, less able to the Government for their mental health problems. It was then when Sofia, daughter of Alexei I and sister of Feodor III, was made with the power, the day of the death of his brother. Sofia ruled as a Regent of his two brothers Iván V (1682-89) and Pedro I the great, with the help of his followers. Pedro took advantage of the internal discontent and was proclaimed Tsar, after having locked to Sofia in a convent (1689) and, subsequently, in jail (1698).