Biography of John Ford (1895-1973)

American filmmaker, whose real name was Sean Aloysius O'Feeney (or ' Fearna), born on February 1, 1895 in Cape Elizabeth (Portland. Maine. United States) and died in Palm Desert (California. United States) on August 31, 1973.

Life

The case of this director is truly peculiar. At the age of thirty he was a veteran of filmmaking, his experience was considerable, but his career best was still to come. Another in his situation he would have, in all likelihood, available his capacity for work, not.

The opinion about his work has gone through various considerations. For quite some time and given their early allegiance to the film business, he was considered an efficient professional, unable to take forward different stories — although a common denominator can be detected in most-, then move to a stage where he was considered a militaristic "lame boots", placing the fascistoid label. Finally, the drafting of Cahiers du Cinéma, in the most glorious time of the French magazine, claimed its figure to enhance it and to become a classic of cinema, whose globally considered work deserves a momentous chapter in the history of the same.

In appearance, and since the days of the iron (1924) to their latest productions horse Ford has been a director who has been building a vision of man and of the United States, from the serenity and tranquility. It, in spite of what many who have not seen his movies say, was actually someone meditative. I knew reduce, or better, present the heroes from a possibilistic and human side. It fell not in ironic surrealism of Capra, in the religious roots of his fellow Italian American fantasy, but in a parallel manner constructing stories of ordinary people, who often looked doomed to great situations that their hands were transformed into something that might have seemed logical and affordable.

Thirteenth son of a family of Irish origin, began in the film helped by his brother Francis, actor and director of the Bison. After all kinds of work - worker, Assistant Director, atrezzista, and especially of Francis - film actor until Carl Laemmle allowed him to direct some of the first westerns of the Universal, debuting in 1917 with several movies of two coils. Although his films are very extensive, all theorists and enthusiasts are agreed to be considered the man who best knew how to understand the western genre and make it an epic song, in which the United States found a social and cultural reference point.

Into its westerns the figure of the protagonist is not someone great, but is what raw material in them the heavy walk of a row of wagons or the wilderness as a place in which the man sits and domestic it, but not encontrarel. Largely this man who, as we said, at some point seemed to some a kind of close to the authoritarian aesthetics, was actually an author social predominantly above personally, of the individual.

The Group of people locked up in the narrowness of the Stagecoach (1939), the captain of the invincible legion (1950), the Mormon settlers of Wagon master, all share a same vision of life either are gathered for more or less the same reason.

Poster of the diligence.

In the year of 1946, when the subject of the duel in O. K. Corral in the strong passion you do, not from the of gestures violent and challenging that the same argument has been treated by other authors, but from a dimension in which the character of Wyatt Earp has nothing superhuman or different from others.

Of Irish origin, Ford was comfortable in an America whose history felt satisfied, in which the contemplation of the big facts and primary hopes not prevented him assume that had been performed by people of different character, much more attached to the usual gestures that to the grandiose gestures. In fact, in his filmography is hardly given violence linked to the idea of company or adventure staff.

He also extracted from geography a capacity of expression that many times comes to lyricism, but without that in mode one skirt, or close, any hint of kitsch. It became fashionable Monument Valley as the backdrop for some of his most important images. But unlike, for example, a Cecil B. de Mille, what that landscape, the decor, shows us his austerity, the fibre and, ultimately, its simplicity.

Although his career was prolific, his work was almost always that of director, which concluded with a great recognition after more than fifty-five years of work. His best known works include the iron horse in which tells the vicissitude of the construction of the railroad that ended up joining the United States and the vicissitudes of Chinese and Irish workers who participated in its implementation, with the background of a love story.

In 1939 the diligence, one of his most recognized and influential, jobs where epic and everyday life were mixed with a skill that neither the best writer had known to translate into a novel. In the same year made the young Lincoln, a biography of the young years of the most momentous President in the history of the country. 1940's the grapes of wrath, a production that leaves his beloved western scenarios to bring us into a world of workers, emigrants boarding, which for many is a Neorealist narrative until the Italians put fashionable term, according to the novel of the same title by John Steinbeck.

With Fort Apache is one of the first to introduce also loved military from a perspective more criticism of what many of its commentators have pointed out, an elliptical way pointed out the shortcomings of a general as Custer, which for years had been a hero of a piece for the official history of the United States.

The quiet man is a film of a thrilling beauty; also outside the territory of the West. Situated action in his beloved Ireland, where a boxer who has killed is removed by the force of his fists to another in combat and how is integrated in the life of an Irish village and how falls for a girl's aggressive appearance. It is one of their most attractive tapes and that better resist the passage of time.

Ford's film there is an evolution which goes from the historical perspective of the white man to understanding that United States is made up of people with different skin color. Perhaps that is the reason why rodo black Sergeant, where through a military trial presented glassy integration of blacks in society formed by whites.

In 1964, already at the end of his career, we find the big match, a film of uneven result, in which Ford implicitly recognized the problems and injustice committed against the Indian nation to the westward expansion of the whites.

Ford was an author who was, throughout his life, homogeneity, which should not be confused with boredom. His work, like the colleagues of the same age, becomes American history magazine a possibilistic perspective, even grateful. But it is considered that the main engine of that story is the individual as that is part of a social context. It manages to be poetic without being bombastic and critical without being hurtful.

Throughout his career he was experiencing an evolution subtle and inconspicuous, but, by examining his work altogether, allowing observe how was assuming the values of all the inhabitants of the United States in their different periods.

He was skillful enough to circumvent the difficulties with the executives of production companies and never it can reputar you conflicting. In Exchange for that, he always make films that wanted him and in the way that felt suitable. He knew all the ins and outs industrial and that allowed him to approach many times the artistic without difficulties. It became very respected by all professionals, who recognized his prestige and admired his talent for telling stories in a way that by classic was timeless. Orson Welleswas considered the only director that was worth studying. He was in he finds aesthetic and mise en scène that go unnoticed for the majority, but that constitute resources of great efficiency.

He was a man with a traditional code of values, but nonetheless it was exclusive, or segregador. Christian, respectful to the family and the institutions, it was clear that it attracted him the army. However, as he was getting old, took more and more aware that the values and institutions are exercised by men and among these you can find everything.

Although his career was very extensive, most of his most representative work is linked to the actor John Wayne that knew how to extract their best records and turn it into a credible archetype of the colonizer of the West. With his size, his authority before the camera and at the same time hard and noble gesture, Ford became Wayne in one of the best actors of cinema, by reduced to be the room for manoeuvre of the actor to diversify in other roles.

Part of his work, which even today still retains the same freshness of the years of its release, has withstood the passage of time with relative ease. But rather is the technique which survives, how that tells the story, as many of its characters were aging with the director himself. The times have selected another type of values and ways, other than that Ford exercised at the time.

From a more critical perspective should be pointed out that, except in his last works, he was convinced that truth and goodness were on one side, while evil was in another and that this conservative was a valuable concept. However, that cannot be considered, much less as a retrograde. Someone who always listened to was what he had to say, but in the end it took their own decisions. He knew how to be brave from the discretion and, being an excellent artist, not ceased to be a normal man.

Throughout his career, carried out several sequences - that will be not credited - films such as the adventures of Marco Polo (1938), Archie L. Mayo; Pinky (1949), of Elia Kazan, Hondo (1953), of John Farrow, and the Alamo (1960), of John Wayne.

Got several Oscar as best director: the informer (1935), the grapes of wrath (1940), how green was my Valley! (1941) and the quiet man (1952), as well as another statuette for the documentary of The War battle of Midway (1942).

Filmography

As an actor

1914: Adventures of Lucille Love. 1915: Three bad men and a girl; The birth of a nation; The doorway of destruction; The hidden city; The broken coin. 1916: The lumber yard gang; Ped or ' the ring; Chicken-hearted Jim; The bandit wager.1917: The trail of hate. 1918: Delirium.1920: the mystery of the thirteen. 1971: Directed by John Ford.

As a director

Cortometraje:1941: Sex hygiene. 1942: The battle of Midway; Torpedo squadron. 1943: December 7th; We sail at midnight. 1951: This is Korea. 1958: So alone. 1959: Korea.1971: Viet Nam, Viet Nam.

Feature films:

1917: The tornado; The scrapper; The friend Cayenne; The bravo Cayenne; Bullet proof; Under sentence of death; Man among men; Bucking Broadway. 1918: Under the mask; Wild Women; Thieve's gold; The drop of blood; The poisoned; The ravine of the devil; Lealtad.1919: Paid debt; Man without arms; The fighting brothers; The smuggler; The rustlers; By indian post; Gun law; Avenger rider; The gun packer; The last outlaw; The outcasts of poker flat; The rider of the law; Iron rider; The man of gold guns; The force of circumstances. 1920: The prince of avenue A; The young of the fourth 29; Bands of gold; Good friends. 1921: Hands of iron; The freeze out; The coup; Roads of despair; Energy action; Sure fire; Juanita.1922: Miss smiles; The blacksmith of the village; Silver wings; The face on the American floor.1923: overcoming abysses; The day of death; SOTA, caballo and King; Hoodman blind. 1924: The iron horse; Hearts of oak. 1925: Fearless heart; Don Pancho; Blood of track; With thanks to contention. 1926: The leaf of clover; Three bad men; The blue eagle. 1927: To be or not to be; My mother! 1928: Four children; The tragic legacy; The Barber of Napoleon; Police without wives. 1929: long live ambition!; Shari, the sorceress; The triumph of Audacity (Co-Director); Submarinas.1930 tragedies: the intrepid (Co-Director); Up the river. 1931: Sea; Annie; Doctor Arrowsmith.1932: Men without fear; Carne.1933: Pilgrims; Doctor Bull. 1934: The lost patrol; Peace on Earth; Judge priest. 1935: Passport to fame; The informer; Stemboat' round the bend. 1936: Prisoner of hatred; María Estuardo; The plough and the stars. 1937: The pet of the Regiment; Hurricane on the island (co-direction). 1938: Four men and a prayer; Submarine patrol. 1939: the diligence; The young Lincoln; Untamed hearts. 1940: The grapes of wrath; Fearless men. 1941: Tobacco road; How Green was my Valley! 1945: They were expendable (co-direction). 1946: passion of the strong. 1947: The fugitive. 1948: Fort Apache; Three godfathers. 1949: The invincible legion. 1950: Bill, you're great; Wagon master; Rio Grande. 1952: The quiet man; What price glory. 1953: The sun shines bright; Mogambo.1955: Cradle of heroes; Scale in Hawaii. 1956: The searchers. 1957: Written under the Sun; The rising of the moon. 1958: A crime per hour; The last hurrah. 1959: Bold mission. 1960: The black Sergeant. 1961: Two rode together. 1962: The man who shot Liberty Valance; The conquest of the West (co-direction). 1963: Irish Tavern. 1964: The big match; The rebellious dreamer. 1965: Seven women.

Other trabajo:1920: Under sentence (argument). 1936: The last outlaw (argument). 1949: the great Gorilla (producer). 1951: The bullfighter and the lady (Assembly supervisor).

Bibliography

BOGDANOVICH, Peter: John Ford. Madrid. Publishing basics. 1983.

BOURGET, J.L.: John Ford. Paris. Rivages. 1990.

FERRINI, f.: John Ford.Firenze. The Nuova, Italy. 1975.

FORD, John: The diligence. Madrid. Publishing basics. 1976.

HAUDIQUET, p.: John Ford. Paris. Seghers. 1976.

McBRIDE, j. and WILMINGTON, M.: John Ford. Madrid. Editions JC. 1984.

MITRY, Jean: John Ford. Madrid. Rialp. 1960.

ROLLET, p.: John Ford. Paris. Cahiers du Cinéma. 1990.

VV..: John Ford. Lisbon. Cinemateca Portuguesa. 1985.

VV..: John Ford. Madrid. Spanish film archive. 1988.

Santiago Sánchez González / Emilio C. García Fernández

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