Philosopher, physicist and U.S. politician, born January 17, 1706 in Boston, and died in Philadelphia from April 17, 1790.
Educated in a Puritan environment, worked from a young age in a candle factory, business who left to go to the liberal newspaper which was owned by one of his brothers. The message of this publication was oriented to the fight against the theocracy and the domination of the Puritan aristocracy. He/She later worked in a print shop, and studied at the same time works as the essay on the understanding of Locke and the spectator in Addison, which forever marked his thinking. In late 1723, he/she emigrated to Great Britain and worked in the print shop of Palmer and Wall. He/She returned in 1726 to his country, he/she founded a printing company and a newspaper the Almanac of the good Ricardo, opened a club, a library, a hospital, a fire insurance company and grew their businesses. He/She was a mason and became an important component of American lodges.
Despite all this activity, was also dedicated to research, in particular electrical phenomena. The result of his experiments with the bottle of Leiden enunciated the principle of conservation of electric charge, term coined along with the battery, which showed that electricity was a single fluid that could be found in two States, called load positive and negative. In 1752 he/she carried out the classic experiment of the Comet, which showed that Ray was an electric shock, discovered the power of metal probes and spread the use of the lightning rod.
He became member of the City Council of Philadelphia, in 1748, year in which he/she started his political career. In 1750, he/she was elected to the Pennsylvania Assembly. He/She was also inspector general of post for the British colonies in America, and during his tenure, there was a noticeable improvement in the service. It was presented in London in 1757, the independence claims of the colonies and, in 1763, make the claim to Lord Granville on the Stamp Act. In 1722, published letters from the Governor of Massachusetts, Hutchison, and the Lieutenant of the Governor, Oliver, and for this reason was about to be arrested as an accomplice to the insurgents, since in the content of these he/she spoke harshly of settlers. Until this situation occurs, had believed in the possibility of maintaining a free country, America, that would be dependent on the British Empire, but understood that maintenance from dependency could not be compatible.
It triumphed in Philadelphia and was elected to the first United States Congress. He/She wrote, with Jefferson and John Adams, the proclamation of the Declaration of independence (1776), and despite his isolationist ideas, was mandated to negotiate the Alliance with France. In Paris was very well received by the enlightened, in which even influenced politically.
He was the main architect, in 1778, of the Treaty of friendship between France and the United States, Spain and the U.S., with Aranda. In 1783, in Paris, as the representative of the United States, signed the peace of Versailles, by which Great Britain recognized American independence. However, Franklin did not return to America until 1785.
By his death and in homage to this symbol of freedom, the French Assembly, man voted a duel of three days.
His memoirs were published in 1771.