Biography of King of Navarra García Ramírez V (ca. 1100-1150)

King of Navarre born about 1100 and died in 1150. He/She was the Restorer of the Pamplona dynasty, after the Kingdom of Navarre had remained United to Aragon for nearly six decades. Known as the Restorer, he/she took the title of "King of the locals".

Son of the infante don Ramiro Sánchez and his wife Doña Cristina, daughter of the Cid Campeador, to 1124 don García had the castle of Mamacastro and the following year regained monsoon, lost by his father in 1116. In 1130 added to his lordship Logroño and in 1133 Calatayud and Tudela. This last square was ceded to him by Rotrou II, count of the Perche, who had married his niece Margarita García Ramírez.

On the death of Alfonso I the Battler (1134), don García claimed by its family law the lands of the Kingdom of Pamplona, which had belonged to his great-uncle, until 1076 Sancho IV of Peñalén. His candidacy of Ramiro (future Ramiro II of Aragon), brother of the late King, which, based on the same family law claimed the part corresponding to the paternal inheritance, i.e. the lands of Aragon and Pamplona, Huesca was opposed. García Ramírez had the support of the Bishop of Pamplona, Sancho de Larrosa, of the conde thief, son of the Lord of Vizcaya, Álava and Guipúzcoa, Xemen Aznar of towers and Guillermo Aznar de Oteiza. Ramiro II was supported by the Bishop of Huesca and other Aragonese nobles. However both suitors props were weak when in December 1134 Alfonso VII of Castile also invoked the rights of their ancestors to claim the Kingdom of Pamplona.

At Vadoluengo (January 1135) Treaty nobles of Pamplona and Aragon came to a compromise whereby, as "father" and "son", both would rule on Pamplona: Ramiro II as King, with power above all the people; García as Prince, under the command of the Knights, which would go in the war. This Treaty had an ephemeral existence, because in may 1135, García Ramírez yielded vassalage in Nájera to Alfonso VII, who had just won the possession of Zaragoza. This submission to Castile accentuated the divide between Aragon and Navarra. Rome also recognised don García as King of Navarre, since the testament of the Warrior had left their kingdoms to the military orders of the East, and, until 1196 named García Ramírez as Duke of Pamplona.

The vassalage of García Ramírez to Alfonso VII, despite its ups and downs, was one of the cornerstones of the foreign policy of the restorer. In June 1135, he/she attended the coronation as Emperor of the Spanish monarch and immediately after both Allied to embark on the Kingdom of Zaragoza, consisting of the cities of Zaragoza, Tarazona, Daroca, Calatayud, which Ramiro II could not claim any inheritance rights, since they were built during the reign of Alfonso I. García Ramírez ruled Zaragoza on behalf of Alfonso VII, at least until 1136, year in which the Emperor gave a twist to its policy and the monk, that gave Zaragoza its position approached Ramiro II. Pamplona García, however, did not accept this decision and had to defend the Kingdom for three years.

The war against Castile was triggered because of the territories of Álava, Vizcaya and Guipúzcoa, which passed into the hands of Alfonso VII, when the robber count passed to its service and swore allegiance in 1137. The operations were of low magnitude and the border between the two kingdoms did not appear to move. In 1137 the Navarrese and Castilian monarchs signed the peace. The war against Aragon was much more active and the initiative on all fronts corresponded to the navarros. Struggles had greater intensity in Tudela and Jaca, but also García Ramírez opened a political front, trying to deprive of its jurisdiction and its incomes to all monastery or Church of Navarra whose headquarters were in Aragon. All these ecclesiastical establishments were incorporated into the Church of Pamplona.

The situation began to change in 1138, when Ramón Berenguer IV of Barcelona took the Government of Aragon. A Pact this signed in Carrión de los Condes in 1140, Alfonso VII, whose objective was to divide up the Kingdom of Pamplona. The count of Barcelona began attacks on Lónguida and Pamplona in July and beat García Ramírez in Ejea de los Caballeros. But the Alliance between Castilla and Aragon was not firm and already in 1140 García Ramírez and Alfonso VII entered into talks. Reached an agreement by which the heir to the Castilian Crown, Sancho III, married Doña Blanca, daughter of the King of Pamplona; a year later, don García widow and entered into negotiations with Alfonso VII, which resulted in the marriage of the King of Pamplona and the infanta Doña Urraca of Castile (1144). With the safety of the Castilian inaction, García harassed the Aragonese frontiers and in 1142 attacked Jaca, Tarazona, and even Zaragoza; the count of Barcelona responded with the site of Sangüesa and during 1143 operations were repeated without decisive results. Peace was signed in San Esteban de Gormaz (1146 November) at the behest of Alfonso VII, needed the collaboration of the Christian kingdoms to launch against Islam, in a moment in which the Almoravid empire had entered into Frank decay.

The three kings allied themselves to the campaign against Almería in 1147. The square was not only the main commercial port of al - Andalus, but that also was a place of refuge for pirates, which explains that Genoa and Pisa are joining the company. The Italians and the Catalans maintained a siege of the city by sea, while the Spanish troops and navarras attacked by Earth, conquering by the Baeza road. Almeria fell 17 October 1147 and its conquest resulted in a change in the orientation of the policy of García Ramírez and Ramón Berenguer IV, both vassals of the emperor. The 1 of July of 1149 the King of Navarre and count of Barcelona signed between their Lordships perpetual peace, while they agreed the marriage of Doña Blanca, daughter of the King of Navarre, with the own count. In addition, forgetting in the cast to the Castilian monarch, agreed to distribute half the future conquests of the Muslims, were the territories conquered by one or by both. Marriage agreed soon was forgotten, as did not interest the Aragonese enemistare with Alfonso VII and finally consolidated the marriage between the count of Barcelona and Mrs. Petronila, daughter of Ramiro II the monk.

Despite the aforementioned Covenant, which was probably secret, García Ramírez continued to collaborate with the King of Castile and in June of 1150 accompanied their expedition to Andalusia. He/She died that same year and was succeeded by his son Sancho VI the wise.


CLAVERIA, C. history of the Kingdom of Navarre. Pamplona, 1971.

LACARRA and DE MIGUEL, J.M. history of the Kingdom of Navarre. Pamplona, 1976. LACARRA and DE MIGUEL, J.M. history politics of the Kingdom of Navarre, from its origins until its incorporation into Castile. Pamplona, 1973.