Biography of José de Gardoqui (¿-1857)

Spanish physician of the 19th century, who died in Cádiz in 1857.

He studied medicine and surgery at the College of Cádiz and later earned a doctorate in Paris, where he mainly worked in the service of the Charité directed by August François Chomel, Laennec successor as Professor of clinical medicine. On his return to Spain, in 1834, he settled in Cadiz. Ten years later he was appointed Professor of medical physics at the new Faculty of medical sciences gaditana. Federico Rubio, who was his disciple, praises him in his memoirs as "one of the best teachers I've ever met in Spain".

Together with Manuel José de Porto and Antonio Álvarez graceGardoqui headed school clinicopathological of Cádiz during the stage following the death of Francisco Javier Laso de la Vega. He has published several articles and a few lessons of medical physics (1845), but his main work was a treatise of the diseases of the organs that make up the respiratory tract (1835-1839). It is not a mere summary or adaptation of French texts, as it was usual in the Spain of the time, but a personal statement of the theme, based on a rigorous outside contributions knowledge and broad experience itself. Its content fully corresponds to the orientation of the Charité, namely the trend clinicopathological sensu stricto the school of Paris. Gardoqui had assimilated not only the contributions of Laennec, but also the provided by the leading figures in the following period, as Gabriel Andral, Pierre Alexandre Louis, Jean Baptiste Bouillaud and his own master Chomel. The Nosology that exposes is strictly clinicopathological and semiology used consists of injuries signs: "is certainly admirable to see the versed in anatomical pathology, not disdaining what can enlighten the diagnosis, to practice with as much ability to percussion and auscultation, that by its means... to announce what is the body effect, indicating the kind of injury that must be on the corpsethe point where there is and their daily progress; confirming after the autopsy as predicted."

In addition to mastering auscultation and percussion, Gardoqui was the number of keystrokes and breaths per minute and carefully examined the physical characters of sputum, pus and blood evacuations. On the other hand used frequently to the statistical criterion, both pathological and clinical problems and therapeutic issues.



Treated diseases of the organs that make up the respiratory system, 2 vols., Cadiz, Lib. of political, 1835-1839.""Report on acute pericarditis" in Gaceta Médica de Madrid, 2 (1835), 1-6. "Case of stuttering treated according to the Jourdan"in Journal of medical sciences, 1 (1844), 4-5. Medical Physics lessons given in the Faculty of Cádiz, Cádiz, IMP. and lib. the medical magazine, 1845.


RUBIO, Federico: My teachers and my education, V. Tordesillas, 1912, p. 359.PESET REIG, Rafael: cardiorespiratory pathology in the first half of the 19th century Spanish, Valencia thesis, 1962, pp. 124-143.lopez PINERO, José María: "the school of Cádiz and the introduction into Spain of the medicine clinicopathological" Medical Spanish, 70 (1973), 125-133.

José María López Piñero