Biography of Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882)

Revolutionary and Italian patriot, born in Nice (now in France) July 4, 1807 and died on the island of Caprera (Sardinia) on June 2, 1882.

Biographical synthesis

He was one of the main architects of the Italian unification, together with Mazzini, Cavour and King Víctor Manuel II; "Hero of two worlds" was called for his revolutionary activity in America and Europe. In fact, sailor by profession, joined in 1834 Mazzini's young Italy; for his involvement in a Republican insurrection in Genoa had to go into exile in South America, first in Brazil and then in Uruguay. In the first country he fought against the Emperor Pedro II and the second Argentine expansionism. Famous already, returned to Italy in 1848 at the beginning of the first war of unification against Austria; rejected its services by Piedmont and the Papacy, fought on their own in Milan and then proclaimed the Republic in Rome. Defeated by the French of Luis Napoleón, in 1850 it had to go into exile again, this time in the United States.

He returned in 1854, then acquiring it that would be his habitual residence, the island of Caprera. He adhered to the unifying project of Savoy, Kings of Piedmont, and in 1859 he fought in Northern Italy against the Austrians. Then, in 1860, by personal initiative he landed in Sicily with a corps of volunteers, the red shirts, and in quick campaign expelled the Bourbons of this island and Naples, which offered to Víctor Manuel II. Already unified across the country, he tried to incorporate still unredeemed territories, Venice (in the hands of Austria) and Rome (of Pontifical domain), but his first attempt in 1862 failed because frowned upon his great prestige, objected you that the Piedmontese army itself. Rehabilitated, in 1866 he collaborated in the conquest of Venice, but having entered in Rome the following year it could not keep it there by the superiority of the French imperial army, who drove him. Retired from politics for a few years, his last great company was the defense of the French Republicans against the Prussians in the war of 1870-1871.

Of America to Italy: the first bouts by the Italian unification

He was the second son of Domenico Garibaldi, sailor and native of Chiavari (Liguria), and Rosa Raimondi, Loano (also in Liguria); He was born around the time that Italy was dominated by Napoléon Bonaparte. Although it was intended to exercise at the wish of his father as a doctor or lawyer, had no vocation for this purpose, and 1821, about fourteen years, he began working in the paternal office, learning it by experience or studies on their own of astronomy, geography, and mathematics. After making several long trips, it reached the Black Sea and the Canary Islands, in 1832 he obtained the rank of captain in height. Around this time he became interested in through a partner, Giovanni Battista Cuneo Italian nationalism. A year later, knew the Republican Giuseppe Mazzini in Marseilles, it became part of the Organization of it, the young Italy. Shortly after, in February of 1834, he enlisted in the Navy of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, and immediately intervened on behalf of Mazzini in a Republican revolt in Genoa which failed; sentenced to death for treason, had to flee to Nice and Marseilles. He sailed for a while in the Navy of the bey of Tunisia and then, for more safety, moved to America (1835).

First settled in Brazil where, without losing touch with the young Italy, Rio de Janeiro is dedicated to maritime trade. In 1842 he contracted marriage with Ana María Ribeiro da Silva ("Anita"), which had met in 1839, who accompanied him on all his bouts until his death. He later helped the rebels of Rio Grande do Sul against the Brazilian Emperor Pedro II; defeated the insurrectionists in 1840, he went to the neighboring country of Uruguay, settling in its capital, Monteviedo. There he worked as a Tamer of horses and in other trades, and four children, rose, Menotti, Teresa and Ricciotti were born. However, he could not lead a peaceful life, because to 1843 he helped the faction of José Fructuoso Rivera against Manuel Oribe (supported in turn by the Argentine dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas); Garibaldi was the reinforcement of several hundreds of Italians, the Italian Legion (also called "Red shirts" for their clothing, which the garibaldini volunteers would have in the future). Chief of the Uruguayan Navy, obtained important successes (Hill, Salto, San Antonio) which gave him considerable popularity, but disillusioned by the political handling urugayos, and learned of the start of the war between Piedmont and Austria, he returned to his nice home in June 1848, after thirteen years of absence.

Its services were not accepted by the Pope Pius IX nor Carlos Saboa Alberto, King of Piedmont, but yes for the sublevada Milan, domain of Austria, where he was appointed general. After the defeat of Custoza, resisted for several days the Austrian Joseph Radetzky von Radetz employing guerrilla tactics, common in it, before surrender and take refuge in Switzerland. He was later elected member of Parliament of the Kingdom of Piedmont by Liguria, but he was not as such, but rather with a handful of men tried to wrest Sicily to the Neapolitan Bourbons; it not reached its destination, because it received news of the estalllido of a revolution in Rome, where it was diverted. The Roman Republic was proclaimed, he was elected Deputy, like Mazzini, of the constituent Assembly; He organized the Roman army and faced in 1849 to the French armies commanded by Carlos Nicolás Oudinot (sent by President Luis Napoleon) and the Bourbon Neapolitans, to those who had requested help the Pope, in Civitavecchia (April 30), Palestrina (May 9) and Velletri (May 19). But very inferior in forces at the beginning of July it yielded the city and retreated to the swamps of the Romagna (where his wife died on 4 August) and then to the neutral State of San Marino. During the transfer to Venice, by sea, from what remained of his army, he was harassed by the Austrians. He had no choice but to return to Turin via Genoa, where remained to be regarded.

Arrested in September, he had to go into exile for a second time. For a few months was in Tunisia and Tangiers (Morocco), where he started the first draft of his memoirs, until in July 1850 he travelled again to America, this time to the United States: worked as Chandler in New York, at the factory of an Italian named Antonio Meucci, and then made several trips by the Pacific in a Peruvian shipwhich would later become captain. Having saved some money, in 1854 he met Mazzini in London to try to convince you that it is adhering to the unifying project of Savoy; then he returned to Nice, where he stayed for one year, in 1855 by buying half of the island of Caprera (very close to Sardinia, located to the North of it), and devoting himself to agriculture.

In 1857 he returned to political activity. Being pragmatic and despite being Republican, proclaimed himself ready to support the Kings of Piedmont, Savoy, who was the only power able to direct efforts to unify Italy. For this reason he adhered to the national society (Società Nazionale, grouping all Patriots). Resumed the war against Austria in 1859, received the command of a corps of volunteers, the Cacciatori delle Alpi ('hunters of the Alps'), which fought the Croats of the Austrian army with favorable results (battle of San Fermo, Varese, Bergamo and Brescia) around Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy). After signing the Armistice of Villafranca (July 8), which was but a temporary compromise, he returned to Turin as a member and there, in opposition to the first Minister Camilio Benso, count of Cavour, was supporter of a strong monarchy that unfettered lead the liberation of Italy. He received the second command of the army of the League of central Italy (Tuscany) and in early 1860 married second wife Giuseppina Raimondi, which separated a few months later.

The major campaigns of the 1960s

That same year Piedmont ceded to France, in Exchange for his non-intervention, much of the old Duchy of Savoy and Nice. This caused a serious Government crisis, which came out strengthened the action party, which appointed as Chief Garibaldi, equally disgusted by the cession of his hometown. Returning to their earlier revolutionary positions, was openly partisan conquer the South of Italy; as well, spurred by Francesco Crispi, broke out a revolt in Sicily on April 4, 1860, landed with 1,085 men (thousand) in the city of Marsala (May 11), whose command assumed on behalf of King Víctor Manuel II. He made a quick campaign thanks to other popular insurrections, entering Palermo on 27 May, crossing the Strait of Messina in August and then taking Reggio and the own Naples (7 September). Proclaimed himself "Dictator of the two Sicilies" and October 2 obtained a great success at the battle of Volturno on a Bourbon army of 20,000 men. With the Neapolitan Kingdom completely under their control, was to continue his conquests by attacking the Papal States when Cavour was ahead of him to the North, Umbria and brands to penetrate. To avoid a confrontation with him, receded to Teano (Campania), where on 7 November handed Naples to the Piedmontese monarch, which already regarded as King of Italy (until 18 April 1861 not was formally crowned). A few days later withdrew to Caprera, refusing the offer of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln's head an American army in July 1861.

In March 1862 he was elected President of the emancipatory society, but differences were intensified with the Liberals, especially when he tried to conquer the Italian still unredeemed territories in the center of the peninsula. In Sarnico (province of Bergamo, Lombardy) and Aspromonte (Calabria), on August 29, 1862, is opposed by the Piedmontese army, being wounded and captured in the second battle. In the midst of a real scandal, which brought down the Government, had to be released, recovering from his wounds at Caprera during one year. He traveled in 1864 to England, where he was hailed as a hero by English (was received by the British Prime Minister, Henry John Temple, lord Palmerston) and exiled Italians.

Shortly after, a new war of liberation, the third, against Austria, where once again he received the command of volunteers, that operating in Verona and Tyrol were to prevent the entry of troops enemy in Italy broke out in 1866. Initially defeated at Custoza, he subsequently won Bezzeca (20-21 July) and was close to Trento, must go back to an order of the Piedmontese Government ('Obedisco', ' obey', he said); However, thanks to the Austrian defeat against Prussia in Sadowa and French assistance, by the peace of Vienna of October 3 the Veneto would be incorporated definitively to Italy. Rome was. Thus, in September of 1867 a new insurrection he promoted on their own. While he was detained near Siena and sent to Caprera, his troops went to that city; at the end he could join them via Florence; He won in October in Monterrotondo, Viterbo and Velletri, but then, at Mentana (Lazio, on November 3, 1867), was defeated by Napoleon III, who also pressured the Piedmont to you condemn the adventure of Garibaldi. For three years was confined to Varignano and Caprera, where he dedicated himself to writing (Clelia or il goberno dei preti, Cantoni il reactivity).

In 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War, he supported the French Republicans. It landed in Marseille on October 7 and was responsible for organizing the army of the Vosges. While in Italy at last Rome was occupied by the Italian armies and proclaimed capital of the reunited Kingdom, Garibaldi won in Chatillon-sur-Seine (November) and Autun (December), stopping the Prussian advance; later, at the beginning of 1871 he beat again in Dijon, city it occupied. He was Deputy for Bordeaux until February, offering him the command of the troops of the Paris Commune, which rejected while his sympathies were with the revolutionaries.

He did not hesitate to retire once more to Caprera, where he remained the rest of his life already. In 1873 he published I Mille ('the thousand') and in 1874 he was elected Deputy. Became increasingly close to socialism, to adhere to the international. The leftist Government supported Italian 1876, although with reservations towards the Parliament. In 1879 he founded the Lega della Democrazia ("League of democracy"), proposing universal suffrage, confiscation of church properties and the abolition of the standing army. This year she got married for the third time with Francesca Armosino, after cancelled marriage with his second wife many years after their separation; with Francesca would have three more children, Celia, Teresita and Manlio. He died in 1882, at the age of 75, shortly after having made a triumphant journey in Sicily. Outstanding military, had instead political leadership: with sometimes contradictory attitudes, which ranged from revolutionary republicanism and monarchy, his idea of State was to some extent utopian, showing of a popular dictatorship without Parliament. It was, in any case, a romantic figure of great prestige, inside and outside their country.

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