Biography of Carlo Maria Giulini (1914-2005)

Italian Orchestra conductor born in the city of Barletta on May 9, 1914 and died in Brescia on June 15, 2005.

Studies and career

He began studying music at the Accademia di Santa Cecilia, in Rome, where he/she trained as a violinist and violist with Remy Principe and attended the classes of composition that Alessandro Bustini taught. In this same institution he/she began to study address with Bernardino Molinari. It soon became a part as violist of the Augusteo Orchestra, which occasionally invited to collaborate with her to various directors of the prestige of Wilhelm Furtwänglerand Otto Klemperer . This Orchestra, which then would be sponsored by the Accademia di Santa Cecilia, which from then on would take his name, offered his first opportunity the young Giulini to lead in public. After this debut, was offered the post of conductor of Radio Rome and, later, that of Radio Milano, where he/she developed his work until the theatre of la Scala in Milan proposed succession of Sabata master at the suggestion of Arturo Toscanini.

The new position offered to the composer the possibility of entering the study and interpretation of the operatic repertoire from the works of the masters of the early Baroque Italian, such as Monteverdi, to the then revolutionary creations of composers such as Béla Bartók and Igor Stravinsky. As musical director of the most prestigious opera Theater of Italy, Giulini also worked with film directors such as Luchino Visconti, who would be the producer of the release the opera Don Carlo, G. Verdi, carried out under the direction of Giulini for the centenary of the Royal Opera House, in 1958, or Franco Zeffirelli, another of the most significant representatives of current attention of Italian cinema toward the opera.

Over the years that Giulini was found in front of the Milanese theater, had opportunity, on the other hand, to contact with the most admired figures of world poetry, which established a link particularly fruitful with expressive Greek soprano Maria Callas, which led in different Opera, as the opera productions Alceste, by G. f. Handel, or playing the role of Violetta in La Traviata.

In 1955, the Italian director began to take part in Opera productions of several English festivals, among them the London Theatre in Covent Garden, the Edinburgh Festival and Glyndebourne. Without, however, after several years of work in the world of opera, the complicated and often rarefied atmosphere that surrounded the Opera productions came to provoke the resignation of Giulini to conduct this kind of repertoire to get involved with greater dedication in the recording of various scores, the study of new repertoires and intense activity as director of orchestras in concert.

In 1978 the positions of conductor and artistic director of the Philharmonic Orchestra of Los Angeles, were offered him which provided the musician the opportunity to transfer their residence to the United States and thus move the in many cases cumbersome European musical world and choose to keep their collaboration only with those institutions and performers that could be musically enriching. These collaborations Yes have included, in several cases, the Giulini returned to the operatic repertoire, although in most of these occasions discussed only recorded in Studio updates, not necessarily put in scene.

The style of interpretation of Giulini

From the stylistic point of view, musical versions introduced by Carlo Maria Giulini during his time of maturity were seen by much of the criticism as the direct heirs of the interpretative rigour of Arturo Toscanini, due to careful observation by the master of the obligation to maintain a high degree of fidelity to the original scoresbut with the spirit of freedom that characterized versions of the great German directors of the post-romantic era, such as Otto Klemperer, or way clearer still, Wilhelm Furtwängler's. From this point of view, directed by Giulini versions appear always beyond the heaviness in typical Germanic versions textures, but close to them to reflect the taste of the master by an elasticity in the tempi greater than that used to practice Toscanini. The artistic evolution of Giulini allowed to observe in their recorded versions a taste for clarity in the profiles, by an expression based on the sharp joint definition and contrast on the approach and development of musical phrases that in the games that could be carried out with the orchestral volume, games that the master used to dispensing with an evident intelligence and reserve only for some very choice moments within the scores interpreted.

Giulini style arose thus characterized by the great control that the director was able to exert on the resources of the orchestras that had under his baton, a control that allowed him to offer versions relatively sober and elegant, free interpretive outbursts typically romantic, but very rich, however, in an expressive power precisely related to its profound knowledge of these same romantic resources of those who decided to serve only on rare occasions. This expression derived in addition, in the case of Giulini, of an intense study scores, your knowledge of the most varied repertoires orchestral and vocal, of prudence with which it was decided to address them and, in general, a domain on all the techniques of the orchestral Magisterium necessarily related to his previous experience as an instrumentalist and connoisseur of instrumental aspects as the knowledge first-handIt is always necessary for a director, the technique of the arch in the Orchestra stringed instruments, as well as with years of nursing in front of various musicians and orchestras in the world.

The school of music Reina Sofía granted on 29 May 2001 the Yehudi Menuhim award to the integration of the arts and education.

Selected discography

-L. van Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 Op. 67 in c minor. Director: Carlo Maria Giulini; Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra. 410 028-2-l. EMI. van Beethoven: Symphony No. 7 Op. 92 in a major. Director: Carlo Maria Giulini; Chicago Symphony Orchestra. EMI 555-769-031-2.-L. van Beethoven: Symphony No. 8. Op 93 in f major. London Symphony Orchestra. EMI 555-769 031-2.-L. van Beethoven: Symphony No. 9. Op 125 in d minor. Director: Carlo Maria Giulini; interpreteda by Varady, Nes, Lewis Estes / E-Senff-Chor / Berliner Philharmonic Orchester. Deutsche Gramophon 427 655-2-j.. Brahms: Symphony No. 1 Op. 68 in c minor. Director: Carlo Maria Giulini; performed by Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra (Deutsche Grammophon 427 804-2) and the Philharmonia Orchestra of London (537-252 132 EMI - 2)-J. Brahms: Symphony No. 2 Op. 73 in d major. Director: Carlo Maria Giulini;. Philharmonia Orchestra of London EMI 537 - 252 222 - 2-j.. Brahms: Symphony No. 3 Op. 90 in f major. Director: Carlo Maria Giulini;. Philharmonia Orchestra of London EMI 537 - 252 222 - 2-j.. Brahms: Symphony No. 4 Op. 98 in e minor. Director: Carlo Maria Giulini; performed by the New Philharmonic Orchestra of London (537-252 222 EMI - 2) and Wiener Philharmonic Orchester (Deutsche Grammophon 429 403-2)-G. Verdi: Don Carlo; Director: Carlo Maria Giulini; Sung by Caballé / field / Wallis / Verret / Davies / Sunday / Noble / Milnes / Madrid / Foiani / Raimondi. Ambrosian Singers / Covent Garden Orchestra of London. EMI 667-747 701-8 (3 CD)-G. Verdi: La Traviata; Dir: Carlo Maria Giulini; performed by Callas / Zanolli / Mandelli / Ricciardi / Stefano / Zamperi / Bastianini / La Porta / Maionica / Zerbini; Chorus and Orchestra of La Scala in Milan. EMI 653-763 628-2 (2 CD).

Bibliography

RENTERO, J. C. (et al.): dictionary of Directors (cinema), Madrid, 1992.

WOOLDRIDGE, D.: Driver completo World, London, 1970.

BOWLES, M.: The Art of Conducting, London, 1963.

PHILIP, r.: "Carlo Maria Giulini", in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, London, 1980.

SLONIMSKY, N.: Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, New York.

J. CATTELL PRESS (ed.): Who's who in American Music, London and New York; annual editions.

HALL, C. J. (compiler): A Twentieth-Century Musical Chronicle. Events 1900-1988, New York; Westport, Conn.; London, 1989.

Lucía Díaz Marroquín

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