English romantic poet, known universally as lord Byron. He/She was born 22 January 1788 in London, and died in Missonlonghi (Greece) 9 April 1824. Son of Captain John Byron and Catherine Gordon of Gight, Scottish heiress who was abandoned by this buscafortunas after having squandered his money. So the Byron childhood was spent in Aberdeen, with economic hardships beside a mother's violent nature, facts that marked her deeply and believed that they influenced his personality. Byron was a person of exalted temperament and adventurous spirit, who liked the action; rebel and impetuous, he/she was never as with the society of their time, they despised, scorned and judged from an arrogant stance against the established morality. At age ten became on lord Byron and Lord of Newstead, and at age twenty-one he/she joined the House of Lords, but the hatred felt by the aristocratic class not allowed him to adapt to your class, and always maintained an attitude of challenge reflected in their premature amorous dalliances, as the relationship with Mary Chaward. He/She studied at Harrow School and at Trinity College, Cambridge.
In 1807 he/she published his first collection of poems, Hours of Idleness, but scathing criticism of Brougham in Edingburgh Review not favored the young Byron, who embarked on a trip to Portugal and Spain along with his friend Hobhouse, trip that had the place of arrival in the summer of 1809 Albania and Greece. Two years later he/she returned to England and as a result of their experience, published the first two songs of Childe Harold completo de Pilgrimade (March, 1812), which turned him into the most famous poet of the country, and also provided an intense social life of talked-about romance as he/she maintained with Lady Caroline Lamb, which however, was not the only reason of scandal since is ascribed a loving relationship with his stepsisterAugusta, who in 1814 a daughter gave birth supposedly Byron. To this period belong The Bride of Abydos and The Giaour. In 1814 he/she began formal relations with Annabella Milbanke, whom he/she married in January 1815, year in which the daughter, Ada, was born and where he/she also published his Hebrew Melodies. But the marriage of the couple failed miserably, apparently Byron treated her with the utmost brutality, so they lived only together a year; Annabella left the poet and a legal separation was arranged. The scandal that has caused was of great magnitude, rumors of incest did not cease to grow, and in addition, the economic situation of Byron was deplorable: debts accounted for him.
Wrapped in this atmosphere of social alarm, Byron decided to abandon England forever, and in April of 1816 took a trip to Lake Geneva, where he/she joined Shelley and Claire Claremont, who had rented a villa as a refuge to the same English society that had sentenced to banishment to Byron. There remained four months in composed them The Prisioner of Chillon (1816), and the third canto of Childe Harold. After this period he/she began to visit Italy, and was in Venice when in January 1917 was born in England the daughter of Byron and Claire, Allegra. Manfred (1817) he/she graduated in this Italian city and then went to Rome, where he/she visited the cell of Tasso, visit that inspired him to the composition of Lament of Tasso (1817); He/She then returned to Venice, where his creative genius won strength; It is the time of the first two cantos of Don Juan (1819), Beppo (1818), and Mazzepa (1819). In spring de1819 met the Countess Teresa de Guiccioli, which was deeply captivated. The couple lived first in Venice, then Byron followed her to Ravenna, city in which wrote The Prophecy of Dante. In 1820, Byron began to become politically involved in the cause of the Italian Patriots, and in 1821 Teresa left her husband to keep his relationship with Byron, who published, that same year, Marino Faliero. Literary concerns of the poet were awakened by these dates, and thus his interest in drama was dormant in The Two Foscari, Sardanapalus, Cain, Heaven and Earth, and The Deformed Transformed (these last two works failed to finish them). His daughter Allegra, and Werner died in 1822 and The Vision of Judgement were published. Byron was moved, along with Teresa and her family to Leghon, place that joined Leigh Hunt; both cooperated in the production of the Liberal Magazine. In 1823 Byron pulled out to a light titles The Island and The Age of Bronze, satirical poem on the Congress of Verona.
Already in January 1824, year of his death, after several misfortunes got to meet with Prince Mavrocordatos to reach Missolinghi. There, completely immersed in politics, he/she devoted himself to organize troops and tactical studies, putting his entire Fortune at the disposal of the Greek independence. However, before entering into battle, while preparing the taking of Lepanto, died of fevers of April 9, 1824.
This rebel poet belonging to the second generation of English romanticism, forms a natural group, that not ideal and poetic, with Shelley and Keats through the friendship school shared: his rebellion against society and morality set in the England of his time (Shelley and Byron), attraction that feel the three to the South of Europe (Shelley and Keats die at an early age in Italy(, and Byron in Greece), and his love for Greece and Greek myths. Of the three, Byron is which enjoyed greater resonance in Europe, and if the qualities of his literary productions, can be said that its popularity is due to the aura of legend raised his personality and "exploits" rather than because the quality of his work exceeds the generational peers. His work is characterized by being provided with a more realistic than the of these point of view since the approach in which Byron is situated is more worldly and carnal so his poetry remains in you flat interpretation of not very extraordinary experiences, with a direct and intelligible, language that may be the key to its success.
While his life was short, his literary production is extensive; two hundred and sixty-four wrote lyric poems, seven satires, nine stories in verse, four Greek tragedies, four dramatic poems, and two narrative poems.
There are two periods in his literary career, separated by the years 1815-16, date that coincides with his failed marriage and its economic problems. The second stage can be considered as the brightest, in which the Byronic hero, in a spectacular and primary principle (The Corsair, 1814;) Lara, 1814), happens to have psychological complexity and intellectual depth (Manfred, 1817;) Cain, 1821); as well as its aggressive satire, it evolves into a humor, at a certain point cervantino, as can be seen in Beppo (1818), and Don Juan (1819-23).
The production of Byron highlights his tales in verse, among them Paris (1816), Mazzepa (1819), and Island (1823), all of them fast, schematic and suggestive, with a varied ambience which attracted the audience in a powerful way. The first is the incestuous relationships maintained by Parisian with his stepson Hugo; the second tells the story of Mazzepa, Gentile Polish man who, due to an affair in his youth at the Court of Warsaw, tied naked on a Ukrainian Colt who, once released, returns to Ukraine so dizzying and unbridled; the third features the loves of a Nordic with a woman from the Pacific on a stage full of tropical splendor.
His dramatic compositions should be emphasised Manfred (1817), and Cain (1821), whose protagonists living distressed by the questions and problems of life and of the world. The first of these heroes feels superior to the other men, who considered inferior and despises, so only craves to relate with those who belong to their "class"; It's lonely and proud, hero on this occasion Spiritualized, of Oriental tales. The second represents the Summit of the Byronic hero, one who confronts hierarchies, this time with more strength and momentum than ever. Byron discusses the biblical theme from other poetic drama: Heaven and Earth (1821). It presents the intellectual problem of the creator at the failure of the creation of the world, which is inhabited by the descendants of Cain, frightened by the wrath of God, which has decided to destroy the world with the flood in order to re-create it as a solution. But the relations of two Angels with two beautiful maidens intersect in the plans of the Supreme God, and two Seraphim prefer staying with their loved ones to save them from the divine rain taking them to other planets, where, however, are not allowed entry, so that they must finally abandon them on the ground, where they suffer the same fate as other mortals.
But Byron fame is not based in their stories or in his dramatic compositions, but in his poems, mainly in Childe Harold (1812-1818), and Don Juan (1819-1823). The first, a poem of travel which consists of four cantos (495 stays spenserianas), collects the experiences of Byron on his journey through Spain, Portugal, Greece and other territories of the Middle East, as well as passing the Valley of the Rhine Belgium, Switzerland and Italy. First song tells the departure of Harold heading to Lisbon, his adventure by the Spanish geography, hotbed of the war of independence; the second elapse between Greece and Eastern countries; and the latter its continental crossing. The success of this poem was in Byron, opposed putting his poetry at the service of a specific aesthetic, reflected their impressions, experiences that reach your soul. In the Don Juan the poet invests all his energies of his period in Italy. It's an epico-burlesco poem, composed more than seventeen cantos (approximately 16,000 verses), in which the nature of Byron is projected with any freedom. The poem describes the travels and adventures of Don Juan from Seville by different European Nations, since after a loving lance with a Spanish Lady, he/she is forced to leave Spain by sea. The boat which travels sinks and, miraculously, reach a Greek island where is Haidee, daughter of a pirate, which falls head over heels for him, feeling that Don Juan, yet feel it, and perhaps as thanks to the care of the Lady, is carried; the arrival of father breaks the Idyll and don Juan is brought as a slave to Constantinople, with so that the sultana becomes infatuated with it and buy it, but the Don Juan ventura with a beautiful Odalisque provokes the fury of the sultana, forcing the hero to elope if you want to go on living. Thus you can reach the walls of Ishmael, who is besieged by the Russian army, takes command of a division and successfully assaulted the Citadel, so it is sent as emissary of the good news to Petersburgo, where immediately conquers the Empress Catherine. But as cold displease this Sevillian Galán, gets to be sent to Britain as Ambassador and his touch and her elegance predict you new conquests, both diplomatic and loving. In the last cantos Byron uses to satirize the high English society of the time. This argument is cut by numerous digressions of humorous, result of the vision of Byron in his nearly 30 years of experience.