Biography of Antonio Gracia Álvarez (s. XIX)

Spanish doctor, born on date unknown, died in Cadiz, in early 1865 to date.

He studied at the College of medicine and surgery of Cadiz, was surgeon in the Navy, and from 1845 practiced his profession in the own Cadiz and in some nearby towns. Although he was not a teacher as José Gardoqui and Manuel José de Porto, he led together with both school Cadiz clinicopathological during the stage following the death of Francisco Javier Laso de la Vega.

In contrast with its blurred biography, the written work of grace Álvarez, is one of the most comprehensive and interesting Spanish medicine during the reign of Isabel II. He was a tireless promoter of medical journalism, and founded several magazines, almost all of them are of very short duration. The most important was entitled Chronicle of hospitals (1849-1851), devoted almost exclusively to collect patients from hospitals more interesting anatomoclinicos Cadiz, according to the model of the Gazette des hôpitaux French or Hospital Records UK. Between 1845 and 1864, he also published almost a hundred articles on different Spanish magazines, also dedicated for the most part to the presentation of cases themselves, which are always exemplary care of exploration and the autopsy protocol. Translated, on the other hand, the studies of M. Burguieres (1847) - one of the first monographs on the Ethereal anesthesia appeared in Spain - and clinical observations, chemical analysis and reflections on the dropsy (1852) of J. Ross. He published also several original books, the most important of which is the descriptive historical essay on the disease of Bright (1849).

Grace Álvarez dealt with different issues, medical and surgical, being one of the first Spanish professionals faced of Pro mode with the problem of the rising especialismo, above all in connection with the oftalmocima. However, the best of his work devoted to renal diseases. The above mentioned test is a splendid monograph divided into three parts, the first of which deals with the pathology, clinic and therapeutic of Bright disease, the second is devoted to collecting cases themselves and others, and the third a "chronological bibliography" of studies on the subject after the appearance of this bookGrace continued to publish articles on renal pathology, some of which are due to their authentic monographs.

Semiology used by Cadiz physician not only included the physical signs of the school of Paris, they had incorporated the chemical signs introduced by Richard Bright. It chemically analyzed the urine of patients to determine the presence of albumin and determined its density by William Prout Urinometer exactly. It also analyzed the blood with the method of l' Héritier, checking corresponding to water ratios, solid materials of the serum, blood cells and fibrin. Although his pathological studies were always macroscopic, it very early the importance of the microscopic investigations of Alfred Donné and Hematological studies of Jules Gavarret and Gabriel Andral. He knew the medical literature in French and English perhaps as no other Spanish physician of his time. Directly or through translations was also one of the first people who paid attention to German publications in our country. In Nephrology, for example, it not only promptly assimilated British contributions from Richard Bright and William W. Gull and the French Pierre F. O. Rayer and his group, they did realize the novelty involving Die Bright'sche Nierenkrankheit (1851) of Friedrich Theodor Frerichs.



Descriptive historical essay on the disease of Bright, followed by observations gathered in the civil practice and in hospitals, Cadiz, Lib. of A. Carlos, 1849. By their high number it is impossible to include here a list of articles published by grace Álvarez. However, noted the series on Nephrology which appeared in the Bulletin of medicine, surgery and pharmacy, 3 (1853) and the century physician (1854), as well as those published in the volumes of the Chronicle of hospitals: M. Burguières: "critical and statistical studies on the etheric aspirations...", translated and augmented by a. grace and Álvarez, Cadiz, Lib. of A. Carlos, 1847.J. Ross: "clinical observations, clinical analysis and reflections on the dropsy..." translated into English by a. grace and Álvarez, Cadiz, IMP. J. J. Arjona, 1852.En collaboration with José Bartorelo, grace also published the unpublished works of José García Arboleya (Cádiz, 1854).


LÓPEZ PIÑERO, José María: "the school of Cádiz and the introduction into Spain of the medicine clinicopathological", medical Spanish, 70 (1973), 125-133.

José María López Piñero