Biography of Adolf George Walter Gropius (1883-1969)

German architect, born in Berlin on May 18, 1883 and died on July 5, 1969 in Cambridge, whose full name was Adolf George Walter Gropius.

He studied at the Technische Hochschule Berlin and at the school of Munich, and obtained the title of architect in 1907.

After completing military service, your first job is to be the first Assistant of the architect Peter Behrens, where he met Adolf Meyer (1881-1929).In 1911, after returning back to Germany after a series of travels in Europe, came to form part of the Deutscher Werkbund, which conducted the Cologne exhibition buildings, following the withdrawal of Hans Poelzig.

During his time at the Werkbund he participated in the construction of the factory and posters for the company of the AES (1908-1911) for Peter Behrens.En 1911 published a book on the techniques of the prefabrication, theories put into practice in the Fagus factory (1911), where attempted to harness the potential of constructive materials, combining them to form volumes that communicate with each other. The use of steel modulates the building in a similar way to the AES of Peter Behrens, but wraps the façade with a membrane and, unlike the AES, Gropius acristala the corner.

In 1914 was called up, which would render their service to 1918.En 1915 underwent a change, since that, after the war, relates the Expressionists of the Arbeitsrat (circle expressionist headed by Bruno Taut and Adolf Behre). Until 1922 he found himself influenced by this trend, and performed works of expressionism, such as her house Sommerfield (1921), where takes advantage of language of the wood and the monument to the fallen of Weinar (1922), made in concrete. A year later was elected President of the Ardeisrat für Kunst.

In 1919 he founded the Bauhaus, which was the director. The Bauhaus came about through the merger of two schools that previously existed in Weimar: the school of Arts, directed at the time by F. Mackensen, and the school of Arts and crafts, aimed by Henry Van de Velde. The main objective of this Association was to unite in the same person to the artist and craftsman, as well as make that art had a service in society and integrate all artistic genres through the fusion of painting, sculpture and architecture.

The objective of the entire school converges on a central circle BAU (construction). The architecture was the point of union in practice of all the workshops, although there were not too many architects in the school. They were, besides Gropius and Adolf Meyer and Muche, among others.

In 1922, with the arrival of Theo Van Doesburg in the Bauhaus, there was a trend towards suprematism and neo.

In 1923 he made the Chicago Tribune, that arises as a result of a contest, showing his knowledge of the school of Chicago and the impact of the neo, following the principles of the avant-garde abstract and rationalist. The same year held the first exhibition of the Bauhaus, where Muche and A. Meyer presented the Experimental House. All the elements that make up the building are designed by its functionality; the space enclosed by the House is projected as a group of rooms around the living room, and everything is resolved from the technological point of view. The ideas of Gropius, from this moment, were largely based on this House.

In 1924 at the Bauhaus developed a project of prefabricated in which a group of houses is constructed from a series of modules United with each other.Walter Gropius then wrote in a pamphlet: all the figurative arts aims to the creation of the space in any of the fields with body, mind and soul.

In 1925 the Bauhaus moved to Dessau and was the own Gropius commissioned to design the new building of the Escuela-Residencia. This building is a reflection of the ideas of the Group; It is built using separate blocks for each of the functions, in which ideas of prefabrication and construction before the war are important. Being a school with residence for students, and housing for teachers, arises from here the construction of social housing, where there was a possibility of working together teachers and students.

This was the most scientific and most technical within the Bauhaus stage. They studied the needs of the society and new materials, and it was therefore greater social commitment stage.

In 1926 he made a project for neighborhood Torten and municipal employment office, where created houses with its own garden, and thus modified the original Adolf Loos'sidea, but gave them more urban character.

In 1927 he participated in the exhibition in Stuttgard, which makes the Total Theatre, which had been commissioned by Piscator. Failed to build, but it has innovations, since projected a theatre that summarizes all the possibilities of theatre, and concluded that there are three possible ways: with viewers in a row facing the stage, with the audience surrounding the stage (central) or with the audience surrounding the stage (circular). The project of Walter Gropius combines three forms in an equal representation.

In 1928 he resigned as director of the Bauhaus, cedienendole the post HannesMeyer.He traveled to Berlin and there realized projects of planning and collective housing with ideas within the rationalism.

He then wrote a rational method of the project: the project is understood within a sequence of actions (from urbanism to details); each project must be advertise solutions for other cases; the architect must serve the productive system; architecture is between technical and formal quality meditation (which meets through prefabrication).

He researched minimum modules until the year 1933, when he left Germany and travelled to the Soviet Union.After the nazi conquest, spent some years in England (1934-1937), where he works with Maxwell Fry. His stay there decisively influenced subsequent English architecture.In 1937 he was invited to play the Chair of architecture at Harvard University and was forced to move to the United States along with Marcel Breuer, with whom he resumes his architectural activity in America. The same year he was appointed an honorary member of the R.I.B.A. (Royal Institute of British Architects), and Vice President of the Institute of Sociology of Londres.En 1938 took the entire address of the Department of architecture at Harvard University until 1953.

It was, above all, a moral leader and a teacher who taught that the goal is to serve society.In 1953 he received great international architecture Prize (biennial of São Paulo, Brazil).A year later he would make a trip to Japon.despues to receive a large number of awards and distinctions to its merit as an architect, died on July 5, 1969 in Cambridge.

Bibliography

BENEVOLENT, Leonardo: history of modern architecture. (Barcelona, Ed. Gustavo Gili, 1994).

BRU, e. & MATEO, j. l.: contemporary European architecture. (Barcelona, Gustavo Gili, 1987).

FRAMPTON, k.: History criticism of modern architecture. (Barcelona, Ed. Gustavo Gili, 1994).

GROPIUS, Walter: Walter Gropius. Works and projects. (Barcelona. Ed. Gustavo Gili, 1994).

GROPIUS: an illustrated biography of the creator of the Bauhaus. (Berlin, 1983).

Walter Gropius. (Ed. Nerdinger Winfried, 1985).

Walter Gropius 1945-1969: the work of the architects collaborative. (New York, Garlan Publishing, 1991).

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