Biography of Emperador de China Guang Wudi o Liu Xiu (5 a.C.-57 d.C.)

Chinese emperor of the dynasty have Eastern, born in the year 5 BC with the name of Liu Xiu and died in 57 A.d. It was the first sovereign of the second Han, also known as "Oriental" by having its capital at Luoyang. Guang Wudi restored peace and order in China after a devastating civil war that followed the time of Wang Mang, and laid the foundations for a new empire that would last for nearly two centuries (25-220).

Belonging to the imperial family, Liu, Guang Wudi began to Excel in the civil war under the command of Liu Keng-shi, one of his relatives who was had been proclaimed emperor in 23 ad. The death of the latter during a battle led to the succession to shifting on his person (25 year), although this did not mean much less the end of the fight: the "red eyebrows" - trigger movement of war - not were defeated definitively until the 28th year, while hostilities with the rest of the lineages who aspired to the throne lasted until the year 36When he managed to beat the most bitter of enemies, Lin Fang, who had been proclaimed emperor in the northern provinces with the support of Tibetans. There were multiple factors that inclined the victory on the side of Guang Wudi, as its undoubted military capacity or the disruption of rivals, but was apparently decisive being the legitimate heir of the ancient have.

After so many years of war, the policy of the new emperor was oriented towards peace and stability throughout the Empire, as well as the restoration of the damaged imperial authority. Although his period of Government was not prodigal reforms - in the majority of cases, is limited to implement the old structure of the Han - emperor introduced some measures to improve the economic and social situation: he distributed the lands abandoned during the war between the peasants, reduced the tax burden, promoted Confucian examination system to nourish the vacant posts of administration and reinstated State monopolies on certain productssuch as salt, alcohol, mining, to alleviate the hardship of the public coffers. However, centralizing efforts ran into resistance both at the level of provinces, where different aristocratic clans had been consolidated during the war power of feudal-style, and the Court, largely dominated by the families of the Imperial consorts; faced with this situation, Guang Wudi opted for a clever policy of alliances and confrontation of interests between the different factions which, at least for a time, operated with relative success, while it also reinforced the role of the eunuchs as advisers embedded in a "personal Secretary" (shang shu).

Under Guang Wudi the foreign policy of the Empire returned to achieve relevance, although within the limitations imposed by the delicate internal situation. In the year 42 the emperor sent to the general Ma Yuan to Viet Nam to retrieve Chinese control over this territory, which attained two years later in a legendary battle, and towards the 50 year the people of the Hsiung-nu, who had penetrated to the North, accepted the protection of Han and henceforth became a valuable allies in the task to protect the northern borders of the Empire. In addition, and as part of its strategy of alliances, Guang Wudi took to wife a princess from the lineages of the North of the country, call Guo Shengtong, but when the political situation changed and the sovereign was entrenched its position against these lineages opted for divorce (41 BC) and replace him by Yin Lihua, who apparently was his lover from long ago. Since then the new consort family became the most influential in the Court of Luoyang and was intrigued that succession next in the firstborn conceived by the Empress Yin, Liu Yang, who ascended to the throne under the name of Mingdi.